Backwards Martingales and Exchangeability
With many data acquisitions, such as telephone surveys, the order in which the data come does not matter. Mathematically, we say that a family of random variables is exchangeable if the joint distribution does not change under finite permutations. De Finetti’s structural theorem says that an infinite family of E-valued exchangeable random variables can be described by a two-stage experiment. At the first stage, a probability distribution Ξ on E is drawn at random. At the second stage, i.i.d. random variables with distribution Ξ are implemented.
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