Advertisement

Cockpit Cognition: Education, the Military and Cognitive Engineering

  • Douglas D. Noble
Chapter
Part of the Human-Computer Interaction Series book series (HCIS)

Abstract

The goals of public education, as well as conceptions of human intelligence and learning, are undergoing a transformation through the application of military-sponsored information technologies and information processing models of human thought. Recent emphases in education on thinking skills, learning strategies, and computer-based technologies are the latest episodes in the postwar military agenda to engineer intelligent components, human and artificial, for the optimal performance of complex technological systems. Public education serves increasingly as a “human factors” laboratory and production site for this military enterprise, whose high performance technologies and command and control paradigms have also played central roles in the emergence of the information economy.

Keywords

Cognitive engineering Education Educational technology Cognitive science Information society Military technology Military research and development Learning research Problem solving Thinking skills 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, C L. (1986), Where did we go wrong? An analysis of the way ISD was mustered out of the Army, paper presented at AERA annual convention, San Francisco. ED 270 632.Google Scholar
  2. Baum, C (1982). The System Builders: The Story of SDC.System Development Corp., Santa Monica, California.Google Scholar
  3. Bell, D. (1967). The post-industrial society; A speculative view. In E. Hutchings, Scientific Progress and Human Values. American Elsevier, New York, p. 154-170.Google Scholar
  4. Beill, D. (1981). The social framework of the information society. In T. Forester (ed.) The Microelectronics Revolution. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  5. Bellin, D. and Chapman, G. (eds.) (1987). Computers in Battle: Will They Work? Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Belmont, J. M. and Butterfield, E. C. (1977). ‘The instructional approach to developmental cognitive research’. In R. V. Kail and J. W. Hagen, Perspectives on the Development of Memory and Cognition, Erlbaum, New York, pp. 430-450.Google Scholar
  7. Binkin, M. (1986). Military Technology and Defense Manpower. The Brookings Institution, Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  8. Bfaschke, C. L. (1967). Hie DOD: catalyst in educational technology. Phi Delta Kappan, 48 (5), 204-214.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, A. (1987). Metacognition, executive control, self-regulation, and other more mysterious mechanisms. In F. E. Weinert and R. H. Kluwe (eds.) Metacognition, Motivation, and Understand- ing. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N. J., pp. 65-140.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, J. S., Collins, A., and Harris, G. (1978). Artificial intelligence and learning strategies. In H. F. O’Neil, Jr (ed.), Learning Strategies. Academic Press, New York, pp. 107-139.Google Scholar
  11. Bruner, J. S. (1983). In Search of Mind. Harper and Row, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Bruner, J. S. (1985). On teaching thinking. In S. F. Chipman et al (eds.) Thinking and Learning Skills, vol. 2. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, pp. 590-599.Google Scholar
  13. Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy (1986). A Nation Prepared: Teachers for the 21st Century.Carnegie Forum, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  14. Chapman, R. L. and Kennedy, J. L. (1956). The background and implications of the systems research laboratory studies. In G. Finch and F. Cameron (eds.) Air Force Human Engineering, Personnel and Training Research. National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, pp. 65-73.Google Scholar
  15. Costa, A. L. (1984). ‘Mediating the metacognitive. Educational Leadership 42 (3), 56-61.Google Scholar
  16. Dansereau, D. (1978). The development of a learning strategies curriculum. In H. F. O’Neil, Jr, Learning Strategies. Academic Press, New York, pp. 1-29.Google Scholar
  17. Datamation (1984). DARPA’s big push in AI. Datamation, 30 (2), 50.Google Scholar
  18. Davis, D. B. (1985). Assessing the strategic computing initiative. High Technology, 5 (4), 41-49.Google Scholar
  19. Davis, R. et al (1965). Potential implementation. In M. A. Sass and W. D. Wilkinson (eds.) Computer Augmentation of Human Reasoning. Spartan Books, Washington, D.C, pp. 151-187.Google Scholar
  20. Dickson, D. (1984). The New Politics of Science. Pantheon, New York.Google Scholar
  21. DiVesta, F. J. and Rieber, L. P. (1987). Characteristics of cognitive engineering: the next generation of instructional systems. ECTJ,35 (4), 213-230.Google Scholar
  22. Dreyfus, H. L. and Dreyfus, S. E. (1986). Mind Over Machine. The Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Dudley-Marling, C. and Owston, R. D. (1988). Using microcomputers to teach problem solving: a critical review. Educational Technology, 28 (7), 27-33.Google Scholar
  24. Edwards, P. N, (1985). Technologies of the Mind: Silicon Valley Research Group Working Paper 2. Santa Cruz: University of California, Santa Cruz.Google Scholar
  25. Ellis, J. A. (ed.) (1986). Military Contributions to Instructional Technology, Praeger, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Evans, D. (1986). Losing battle: the army and the underclass. The New Republic, 194 (26), 10-13.Google Scholar
  27. Fano, R. M. (1965). The MAC system: a progress report. In M. A. Sass and W. D. Wilkinson (eds.) Computer Augmentation of Human Reasoning. Spartan Books, Washington, D.C, pp. 131-149.Google Scholar
  28. Flavell, J. H. (1977) Cognitive Development. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.Google Scholar
  29. Flaveli, J. H. (1987). Speculation about the nature and development of metacognition. In F. E. Weinert and R. H. Kluwe (eds)., Metacognition, Motivation, and Understanding. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N. J., pp. 21-29.Google Scholar
  30. Greeno, J. (1985). Looking across the river: views from the two banks of research and development in problem solving. In S, F. Chipman, J. W. Segal, and R. Glaser (eds.) Thinking and Learning Skills, vol. 2, pp. 209-214.Google Scholar
  31. Gropper, G. L. (1980). Is instructional technology dead? Educational Technology, 20 (1), 39.Google Scholar
  32. Halff, H. M., Hollan, J. D., and Hutchins, E. L., (1986). Cognitive science and military training. American Psychologist, 41 (10), 1131-1138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hitchens, H. B. (1971). Instructional technology in the armed forces. In S. G. Tickton (ed.) To Improve Learning: An Evaluation of Instructional Technology,vol. II. R. R. Bowker, New York, pp. 701-721.Google Scholar
  34. Hoos, I. R. (1972). Systems Analysis in Public Policy: A Critique.Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  35. Hounshell, D. A. (1984). From the American System to Mass Production, 1800-1932. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Keating, D. P. (1984). The emperor’s new clothes: the *new look* in intelligence research. In R. J. Sternberg, Advances in the Psychology of Human Intelligence,vol. 2. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., pp. 1-45.Google Scholar
  37. Kemeny, J. G. (1972). Man and the Computer, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  38. Kennedy, J. L. (1962). Psychology and systems development, in R. M. Gagne, (ed.) Psychological Principles in System Development. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, pp. 13-22.Google Scholar
  39. Klahr, D. (1976) Designing a learner: some questions. In D. Klahr (ed.) Cognition and Instruction:Tenth Annual Carnegie Symposium on Cognition. Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Via, pp. 325-332.Google Scholar
  40. Klahr, D. and Carver, S. M. (1980). Cognitive objectives in a LOGO debugging curriculum: instruction, learning, and transfer. Cognitive Psychology, 20, 362-404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Klein, E. L (ed.) (1985) Children and Computers. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  42. Knapp, T. J. (1986). The emergence of cognitive psychology in the latter half of the twentieth century. In T. J. Knapp and L. C. Robertson (eds.) Approaches to Cognition: Contrasts and Controversies. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., pp. 13-35.Google Scholar
  43. Kozma, R. B. (1987). The implications of cognitive psychology for computer-based learning tools. Educational Technology, 27 (11), 20-25.Google Scholar
  44. Lachman, R. et al (1979). Cognitive Psychology and Information Processing: An Introduction. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J.Google Scholar
  45. Landa, L. N. (1976). Instructional Regulation and Control(F. Kopstein, ed.). Educational Technology Publications, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.Google Scholar
  46. Langley, P. and Simon, H. A. (1981). The central role of learning in cognition. In J. R. Anderson (ed.) Cognitive Skills and Their Acquisition.Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., pp. 361-380.Google Scholar
  47. Lens, S. (1987). Permanent War: The Militarization of America. Schocken Books, New York.Google Scholar
  48. Leron, U. (1985). Logo today: vision and reality. The Computing Teacher,February, 26-32.Google Scholar
  49. Licklider, J. C. R. (1960). Man-computer symbiosis. IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics,HFE-1 (March), 4-11.Google Scholar
  50. Licklider, J. C. R. (1982). National goals for computer literacy. In R. J. Seidel etal. (eds.) Computer Literacy: Issues and Directions for 1985. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  51. Lochhead, J. and Clement, J. (1979). Cognitive Process Instruction.Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  52. Loughary, J. W. (1970). Teaching technology. In A. C. Eurich, (ed.) High School 1980. Pitman Publishers, New York, pp. 240-251.Google Scholar
  53. Lumsdaine, A. A. and Glaser, R. (1960) Teaching Machines and Programmed Learning,vol. I. NEA, Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  54. Machado, L. A. (1981) ‘Elite babies: the weapon of the future, The Times(London), 30 August, no page. Cited in J. Crouse and D. Trusheim (1988) The Case Against the SA T.University of Chicago Press, Chicago, p. 1.Google Scholar
  55. McCorduck, P. (1979) Machines Who Think.W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  56. McCoy, T. W. (1986) New ways to train. Air Force Magazine, 69 (12), 55-61.Google Scholar
  57. Melman, S. (1985). The Permanent War Economy. Simon and Schuster, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Melton, A. W. (1959). The science of learning and the technology of educational methods. Harvard Education Review, 29 (2), 97-105.Google Scholar
  59. Miller, G. A., Galanter, E., and Pribram, K. H. (1960). Plans and the Structure of Behavior, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Mills, C. W. (1959). The Power Elite. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  61. Moravec, H. (1988). Mind Children. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  62. Mumford, L. (1963). Technics and Civilization, Harbinger Books, New York.Google Scholar
  63. Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive Psychology. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  64. Neumann, W. (1979). Educational responses to the concern for proficiency. In G. Grant (ed.) On Competence: a Critical Analysis of Competency-Based Reforms in Higher Education. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp. 67-95.Google Scholar
  65. Newell, A. and Simon, H. A. (1972). Human Problem Solving. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.Google Scholar
  66. Newell, A., Shaw, J. C. and Simon, H. A. (1958). Elements of a theory of human problem solving. Psychological Review, 65 (3), 151-166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nickerson, R. S. (1986). Project Intelligence: an account and some reflections. Special Services in the Schools, 3 (1/2), 83-102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nickerson, R. Perkins, D. N. and Smith, E. (1985). The Teaching of Thinking. Eribaum, Hillsdale, N.J.Google Scholar
  69. Norman, D. A. (1980). Cognitive engineering and education. In D. T. Tuma and F. Reif (eds.) Problem Solving and Education. Eribaum, Hillsdale, N.J., pp. 81-95.Google Scholar
  70. Norman, D. A. (ed.) (1981). Perspectives and Cognitive Science.Ablex/Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J.Google Scholar
  71. Norman, D. A. (1987). Cognitive science - cognitive engineering. In J. M. Carroll (ed.) Interfacing Thought. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp. 325-336.Google Scholar
  72. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) (1982). Informational Technology and Its Impact on American Education.US Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  73. Olsen, J. R. and Bass, V. B. (1982). The application of performance technology in the military: 1960-1980. NSPI Journal, 21 (6), 32-36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Papert, S. (1980). Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas.Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  75. Pea, R. D. (1985a) Integrating human and computer intelligence. In E. I. Klein (ed.) Children and Computers.New Directions for Child Development, no. 28. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp. 75-96.Google Scholar
  76. Pea, R. D. (1985b). Beyond amplification: using the computer to reorganize mental functioning. Educational Psychologist, 20 (4), 167-182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Piiler, C. and Yamamoto, K. R. (1988). Gene Wars: Military Control Over the New Genetic Technologies. William Morrow, New York.Google Scholar
  78. Popkewitz, T. S. et al.. (1982). The Myth of Education Reform. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  79. Posner, M. I. (1973). Cognition: natural and artificial. In R. L. Solso (ed.) The Loyola Symposium:ontemporary Issues in Cognitive Psychology. V. H. Winston and Sons, Washington, D. C, pp. 167-175.Google Scholar
  80. Pressley, M, et al. (1985). Children’s use of cognitive strategies. In M. Pressley and C. J. Brainerd (eds.) Cognitive Learning and Memory in Children.Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 1-48.Google Scholar
  81. Reif, F. (1980). Theoretical and educational concerns with problem solving: bridging the gaps with human cognitive engineering. In D. T. Tuma and F. Reif (eds) Problem Solving and Education. Eribaum, Hillsdale, N.J. pp. 39-50.Google Scholar
  82. Resnick, L. (1987). Education and Learning to Think. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  83. Resnick, L. (1988/1989). On learning research, Educational Leadership, 46 (4), 12-16.Google Scholar
  84. Resnick, L. (1983). Toward a cognitive theory of instruction, in S. G. Paris (ed.) Learning and Motivation in the Classroom. Eribaum, Hillsdale, N.J.Google Scholar
  85. Rigney, J. W. (1978). Learning Strategies: A Theoretical Perspective. In H. F. O’Neil, Jr (ed.) Learning Strategies. Academic Press, New York, pp. 165-205.Google Scholar
  86. Rigney, J. W. and Munro, A. (1981). Learning strategies. In H. F. O’Neil, Jr (ed.) Computer-Based Instruction: A State-of-the-Art Assessment Academic Press, New York, pp. 127-159.Google Scholar
  87. Rosenberg, R, (1987) A critical analysis of research on intelligent tutoring systems. Educational Technology November, 7-13.Google Scholar
  88. Rowel!, J. T. and Streich, E. R. (1964). The Sage system training program for the Air Defense Command. Human Factors, October, 537-548.Google Scholar
  89. Sackman, H. (1967). Computers, System Science, and Evolving Society: The Challenge of Man- Machine Digital Systems. John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  90. Saettler, P. (1968). A History of Instructional Technology. NEA, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  91. Shaker, S. M. and Wise, A. R. (1988). War Without Men: Robots on the Future Battlefield. Pergamon-Brassey’s, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  92. Sheil, B. A. (1982). Coping with complexity. In R. A. Kasschau, R, Lachman and K. R. Laughery (eds.) Information Technology and Psychology. Praeger, pp. 77-105.Google Scholar
  93. Simon, H. A. (1964). Decision-making as an economic resource. In Seltzer, L. H. (ed.) New Horizons of Economic Progress. Wayne State University Press, Detroit, pp. 81-83.Google Scholar
  94. Simon, H. A. (1981). ‘Cognitive science: the newest science of the artificial’. In Norman, D. A. (ed.) Perspectives on Cognitive Science.Ablex/Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., pp. 13-25.Google Scholar
  95. Simon, H. A. (1980). Problem solving and education. In Tuma, D. T. and Reif, F. (eds.) Problem Solving and Education. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., pp. 81-96.Google Scholar
  96. Simon, H. A. (1983). Why should machines learn? In Michalski, R. S. etal. (eds.) Machine Learning:An Artificial Intelligence Approach. Tioga, Palo Alto, California, pp. 25-37.Google Scholar
  97. Smith, M. R. (ed.) (1985). Military Enterprise and Technological Change.MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  98. Snow, R. E. etal, (eds.) (1980). Aptitude, Learning and Instruction, vol. 2. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J.Google Scholar
  99. Spitz, H. H. (1986). The Raising of Intelligence. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J.Google Scholar
  100. Sternberg, R. J. (1977). Intelligence, Information Processing and Analogical Reasoning: The Componential Analysis of Human Abilities. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J.Google Scholar
  101. Sternberg, R. J. and Detterman, D. K. (1982). How and How Much Can Intelligence Be Increased? Ablex, Norwood, N.J.Google Scholar
  102. Tessmer, M. and Jonassen, D. (1988). Learning strategies: a new instructional technology. In Harris, D. (ed) Education For the New Technologies: World Yearbook of Education. Kogan Page, London, pp. 20-45.Google Scholar
  103. Tirman, J. (1984). The Militarization of High Technology. Ballinger, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  104. Towne, D. M. (1987). The generalized maintenance trainer. In Rouse, W. B. (ed.) Advances in Man- Machine Systems Research, vol. 3. JAI Press, Greenwich, Conn.Google Scholar
  105. Walsh, J. (1981). A plenipotentiary for human intelligence. Science,214 (6), 640-641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. WGBH (1980). Top gun and beyond. NOVA Television Program (Jan. 20).Google Scholar
  107. Wittrock, M. C. (1979). Applications of cognitive psychology to education and training. In O’Neil, H. F. Jr and Spielberger, C. D. (eds.) Cognitive and Affective Learning Strategies. Academic Press, New York, pp. 309-317Google Scholar
  108. Yussen, S. R. (1985). The role of metacognition in contemporary theories of cognitive development. In Forrest-Pressley, D. L., MacKinnon, G. E. and Waller, T. G. (eds.) Metacognition, Cognition, and Human Performance. Academic Press, New York, pp. 252-283.Google Scholar
  109. Zender, B. (1975). Computers and Education in the Soviet Union. Educational Technology Publications, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  110. Zuboff, S. (1988). In the Age of the Smart Machine. Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas D. Noble
    • 1
  1. 1.USA

Personalised recommendations