The Respiratory System

  • Steve J. Gould

One of the most critical events of birth is the conversion of the fluid-filled lung, unimportant to fetal intrauterine existence, into a hollow organ distended with air and capable of gaseous exchange sufficient to support life. Indeed, it has been argued that the major determinant of perinatal survival is respiratory function (Wigglesworth and Desai 1982).

The failure to make this conversion adequately may lead, directly or indirectly, to infant death, and the pathologist often needs to assess the contribution made by respiratory inadequacy to the sequence of events leading to death. In the preterm infant, problems are mainly related to pulmonary immaturity and associated therapy. In the mature infant, birth asphyxia primarily results in cerebral damage but can engender significant respiratory complications when associated with aspiration of meconium. Even in stillbirths, where primary pulmonary pathology is rarely a cause of death, lung pathology may provide clues to antecedent events. Poor lung growth and maturation may point to the presence of pathology elsewhere. Consequently, adequate pathological investigation of the fetal or infant respiratory system is critical in any perinatal autopsy.


Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Pulmonary Hypoplasia Bronchogenic Cyst Meconium Aspiration Syndrome Hyaline Membrane Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ablow RC, Driscoll SG, Effman EL, et al. (1976) A comparison of early onset group B streptococcal neonatal infection and the respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn. N Engl J Med 294:65–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abzug MJ, Beam AC, Gyorkos EA, Myron J (1990) Viral pneumonia in the first month of life. Pediatr Infect Dis J 9:882–885.Google Scholar
  3. Agosti E, Filippi G, Chiussi F (1974) Generalized familial bronchomalacia. Acta Pediatr Scand 63:616– 618.Google Scholar
  4. Ahanya SN, Lakshmanan J, Morgan BL, Ross MG (2005) Meconium passage in utero: mechanisms, consequences, and management. Obstet Gynecol Surv 60:45–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Albuquerque CA, Smith KR, Saywers TE, Johnson C, Cock ML, Harding R (2002) Relation between oligo-hydramnios and spinal flexion in the human fetus. Early Hum Dev 68:119–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Amizuka T, Shimizu H, Niida Y, Ogawa Y (2003) Surfactant therapy in neonates with respiratory failure due to haemorrhagic pulmonary oedema. Eur J Pediatr 162:697–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Areechon W, Reid L (1963) Hypoplasia of lung with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Br Med J 1:230– 233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Askenazi SS, Perlman M (1979) Pulmonary hypoplasia: lung weight and radial alveolar count as criteria of diagnosis. Arch Dis Child 54:614–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bale PM (1979) Congenital cystic malformation of the lung. A form of congenital bronchiolar (adeno-matoid) malformation. Am J Clin Pathol 71:411– 420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Belmont JR, Grundfast K (1984) Congenital laryngeal stridor (laryngomalacia). Etiologic factors and associated disorders. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 93:430–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Benjamin B (1984) Tracheomalacia in infants and children. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 93:438–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bertrand P, Navarro H, Caussade D, Holmgren N, Sanchez I (2003) Airway anomalies in children with Down syndrome: endoscopic findings. Pediatr Pulmonol 36:137–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Blanc WA (1976) Commentary: yellow lung in premature infants. J Pediatr 89:131–132.Google Scholar
  14. Bonifacio SL, Kitterman JA, Ursell PC (2003) Pseudo-monas pneumonia in infants: an autopsy study. Hum Pathol 34:929–938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bonikos DS, Bensch KG, Northway WH Jr, Edwards DK (1976) Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: the pulmonary pathologic sequel of necrotizing bronchiolitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Hum Pathol 7:643–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bonnard A, Auber F, Fourcade L, Marchac V, Emond S, Revillon Y (2003) Vascular ring abnormalities: a retrospective study of 62 cases J Pediatr Surg 38:539–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Booth JB, Berry CL (1967) Unilateral pulmonary agenesis. Arch Dis Child 42:361–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bozic C (1969) Lesions dues a l'intubation endotra-chéale des nouveau-nés. Helv Paediatr Acta 24:458– 462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bray RJ, Lamb WH (1988) Tracheal stenosis or agenesis in association with tracheo-oesophageal fistula and oesophageal atresia. Anaesthesia 43:654–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brown MJ, Olver RE, Ramsden CA, Strang LB, Walters DV (1983) Effects of adrenaline and of spontaneous labour on the secretion and absorption of lung liquid in the fetal lamb. J Physiol 344:137–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Burri PH (1999) Lung development and pulmonary angiogenesis. In: Gaulter C, Bourbon J, Post M (eds) Lung Development. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 122–151.Google Scholar
  22. Bush A (2001) Congenital lung disease: a plea for clear thinking and clear nomenclature. Pediatr Pulmonol 32:328–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Calvert JK, Boyd PA, Chamberlain PC, Said S, Lakhoo K (2006) Outcome of antenatally suspected congeni-tal cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung: 10 years' experience 1991–2001. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 91:F26–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cassell GH, Waites KB, Watson HL, Crouse DT, Harasawa R (1993) Ureaplasma urealyticum intra-uterine infection: role in prematurity and disease in newborns. Clin Microbiol Rev 6:69–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cater G, Thibeault DW, Beatty EC Jr, Kilbride HW, Huntrakoon M (1989) Misalignment of lung vessels and alveolar capillary dysplasia: a cause of persistent pulmonary hypertension. J Pediatr 114:293–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cha I, Adzick NS, Harrison MR, Finkbeiner WE (1997) Fetal congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations of the lung: a clinicopathologic study of eleven cases. Am J Surg Pathol 21:537–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chambers HM (1991) Congenital acinar aplasia: an extreme form of pulmonary maldevelopment. Pathology 23:69–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chandra RK, Gerber ME, Holinger LD (2001) Histo-logical insight into the pathogenesis of severe laryngomalacia. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 19:31–38.Google Scholar
  29. Chang N, Hertzler JH, Gregg RH, Lofti MW, Brough AJ (1968) Congenital stenosis of the right mainstem bronchus. A case report. Pediatrics 41:739–742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chapin CJ, Ertsey R, Yoshizawa J, et al. (2005) Congenital diaphragmatic hernia, tracheal occlusion, thyroid transcription factor-1, and fetal pulmonary epithelial maturation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 289:L44–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Chellam VG (1988) Rhabdomyomatous dysplasia of the lung: a case report with review of the literature. Pediatr Pathol 8:391–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Chen MF, Onerheim R, Wang NS, Huttner I (1991) Rhabdomyomatosis of the newborn lung. Pediatr Pathol 11:123–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Chen Y, Frank L (1993) Differential gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in the perinatal rat lung. Pediatr Res 34:27–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Chi JG, Shong Y-K (1982) Diffuse striated muscle het-eroplasia of the lung. An autopsy case. Arch Pathol Lab Med 106:641–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Chu L, Gussack G, Orr JB, Hood D (1994) Neonatal laryngoceles: a cause for airway obstruction. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 120:454–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Clements BS, Warner JO (1987) Pulmonary sequestration and related congenital bronchopulmonary-vascular malformations: nomenclature and classification based on anatomical and embryologi-cal considerations. Thorax 42:401–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Coffin CM, Schechtman K, Cole FS, Dehner LP (1993) Neonatal and infantile pulmonary hemorrhage: an autopsy study with clinical correlation. Pediatr Pathol 13:583–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cogbill TH, Moore FA, Accurso FJ, Lilly JR (1983) Primary tracheomalacia. Ann Thorac Surg 35:538– 541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Cole VA, Normand ICS, Reynolds EO, Rivers RPA (1973) Pathogenesis of hemorrhagic pulmonary edema and massive pulmonary hemorrhage in the newborn. Pediatrics 51:175–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Contreras M, Hariharan N, Lewandoski JR, et al. (1996) Bronchoalveolar oxyradical inflammatory elements herald bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Crit Care Med 24:29–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cooke RWI (1991) Factors associated with chronic lung disease in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child 66:776– 779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cooney TP, Thurlbeck WM (1982) The radial alveolar count method of Emery and Mithal: a reappraisal. 2. Intrauterine and early postal lung growth. Thorax 37:580–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Cotton RT, Richardson MA (1981) Congenital laryngeal anomalies. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 14:203–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Cunningham ML, Mann N (1997) Pulmonary agenesis: a predictor of ipsilateral malformations. Am J Med Genet 70:391–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Danielian PJ (1994) Multiple parameters including meconium. In: Spencer JAD, Ward RHT (eds) Intra-partum Fetal Surveillance. RCOG Press, London, pp. 269–280.Google Scholar
  46. Davenport M, Warne SA, Cacciaguerra S, Patel S, Greenough A, Nicolaides K (2004) Current outcome of antenally diagnosed cystic lung disease. J Pediatr Surg 39:549–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. de Krijger RR, Albers MJ, Bogers AJ, Mooi WJ (2004). Heterotopic pancreatic tissue presenting as a solid and cystic lung lesion: a very unusual bronchopul-monary foregut malformation. Pediatr Dev Pathol 7:204–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. de la Monte S, Hutchins GM, Moore GW (1986) Respiratory epithelial cell necrosis is the earliest lesion of hyaline membrane disease of the newborn. Am J Pathol 123:155–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. De Paepe ME, Friedman RM, Gundogan F, Pinar H, Oyer CE (2004) The histologic fetoplacental inflam-matory response in fatal perinatal group B-streptococcus infection. J Perinatol 24:441–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. De Santo LW, De Vine KD, Weiland LH (1970) Cysts of the larynx. Classification. Laryngoscope 80:145–176.Google Scholar
  51. De Vine WA, Debich DE, Anderson RH (1991) Dissection of congenitally malformed hearts, with comments on the value of sequential segmental analysis. Pediatr Pathol 11:235–260.Google Scholar
  52. Devlieger H, Jaeken J, Moerman P, et al. (1994) Intractable asphyxia at birth: analysis of the underlying conditions. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 54:21–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Diaz EM, Adams JM, Hawkins HK, Smith RJH (1989) Tracheal agenesis. A case report and literature review. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 115:741–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Domitzio P, Liesner RJ, Dicks-Mireaux C, Risdon RA (1990) Malignant mesenchymoma associated with a congenital lung cyst in a child. Case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Pathol 10:785–797.Google Scholar
  55. Doolin EJ, Strande L, Attorri RJ (1995) Morphometry and histochemistry of pulmonary arteries in a hypo-plastic lung model. J Surg Res 59:191–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Durham PL, Snyder JM (1995) Characterization of alpha-1, beta-1 and gamma-1 laminin subunits during rabbit fetal lung development. Dev Dynam 203:408–421.Google Scholar
  57. Durham PL, Snyder JM (1996) Regulation of the beta-2 subunit chain of laminin in developing rabbit fetal lung tissue. Differentiation 60:229–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Emery JL, Mithal A (1960) The number of alveoli in the terminal respiratory unit of man during late intra-uterine life and childhood. Arch Dis Child 35:544–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Endo A, Minato M, Takada M, et al. (2001) A case of pulmonary hypoplasia associated with intrauterine brainstem necrosis. Eur J Pediatr 160:675–676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Engellenner W, Kaplan C, Van-de-Vegte GL (1989) Pulmonary agenesis association with nonimmune hydrops. Pediatr Pathol 9:725–730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Engle WA, Lemons JA, Weber TR, Cohen MD (1984) Congenital lobar emphysema due to a bronchogenic cyst. Am J Perinatol 1:196–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Esterly JR, Oppenheimer EH (1970) Lymphangiectasis and other pulmonary lesions in the asplenia syndrome. Arch Pathol 90:553–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Farrell PM, Avery ME (1975) Hyaline membrane disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 3:657–688.Google Scholar
  64. Ferguson MWJ (1991) The orofacial region. In: Wigglesworth JS, Singer DB (eds) Textbook of Fetal and Perinatal Pathology. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp. 843–880.Google Scholar
  65. Ferguson MWJ, Sharpe PM, Thomas BL, Beck F (1992) Differential expression of insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF I and II), mRNA, peptide and binding protein 1 during mouse palate development: comparison with TGF-beta peptide distribution. J Anat 181:219–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Figa FH, Yoo SJ, Burrows PE, Turner-Gomes S, Freedom RM (1993) Horseshoe lung—a case report with unusual bronchial and pleural anomalies and a proposed new classification. Pediatr Radiol 23:44–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Fine ED, Dahms B, Arnold JE (1995) Laryngeal hamar-toma: a rare congenital abnormality. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 104:87–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Fisher JE, Nelson SJ, Allen JE, Holzman RS (1982) Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung. A unique variant. Am J Dis Child 136:1071– 1074.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Floyd J, Cambell DC, Dominey DE (1962) Agenesis of the trachea. Am Rev Respir Dis 86:557–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Forte V, Fuoco G, James A (2004) A new classification system for congenital laryngeal cysts. Laryngoscope 114:1123–1127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. France NE, Brown RJK (1971) Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasis: report of 11 examples with special reference to cardiovascular findings. Arch Dis Child 46:528–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Frank L, Sosenko IRS (1987) Development of lung anti-oxidant enzyme system in late gestation: possible implications for the prematurely born infant. J Pediatr 110:9–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Frank L, Sosenko IRS (1991) Failure of premature rabbits to increase antioxidant enzymes during hyperoxic exposure: increased susceptibility to pulmonary oxygen toxicity compared with term rabbits. Pediatr Res 29:292–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Friedman EM, Vastola P, McGill TJI, Healy GB (1990) Chronic pediatric stridor: etiology and outcome. Laryngoscope 100:277–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Galambos C, DeMello DE (2007) Molecular mechanisms of pulmonary vascular development. Pediatr Develop Pathol 10:1–17.Google Scholar
  76. Gersony WM (1973) Persistence of the fetal circulation. A commentary. J Pediatr 82:1103–1106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Gibson RL, Redding GJ, Henderson WR, Truog WE (1991) Group B streptococcus induces tumor necrosis factor in neonatal piglets. Am Rev Respir Dis 143:598–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Gifford GH Jr, Swanson L, MacCollum DW (1972) Congenial absence of the nose and anterior nasopharynx. Plast Reconstr Surg 50:5–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Gillespie LM, Fenton AC, Wright C (2004) Acinar dys-plasia: a rare cause of neonatal respiratory failure. Acta Paediatr 93:712–713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Goldman AS (1992) Pathophysiology of congenital malformations. In: Polin RA, Fox WW (eds) Fetal and Neonatal Physiology. WB Saunders, London, pp. 36–46.Google Scholar
  81. Gorenflo M, Vogel M, Obladen M (1991) Pulmonary vascular changes in bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a clinical pathologic correlation in short and long term survivors. Pediatr Pathol 11:851–866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Gould SJ, Howard S (1985) The histopathology of the larynx in the neonate following endotracheal intubation. J Pathol 146:301–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Gould SJ, Isaacson PG (1993) Bronchus-associated lym-phoid tissue (BALT) in human fetal and infant lung. J Pathol 169:229–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Gravett MG, Nelson P, DeRouen T, et al. (1986) Independent associations of bacterial vaginosis and Chla-mydia trachomatis infection with adverse pregnancy outcome. JAMA 256:1899–1903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Goldman AS (1992) Pathophysiology of congenital malformations. In: Polin RA, Fox WW (eds) Fetal and Neonatal Physiology. WB Saunders, London, pp. 36–46.Google Scholar
  86. Grigg J, Arnon S, Chase A, Silverman M (1993) Inflam-matory cells in the lungs of premature infants on the first day of life: perinatal risk factors and origin of cells. Arch Dis Child 69:40–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Groenman F, Unger S, Post M (2005) The molecular basis for abnormal lung development. Biol Neonate 87:164–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Groneck P, Speer CP (1995) Inflammatory mediators and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Arch Dis Child 73:F1–F3.Google Scholar
  89. Gupta TGCM, Goldberg SJ, Lewis E, Fonkalsrud EW (1968) Congenital bronchomalacia. Am J Dis Child 115:88–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Gutierrez D, Rodriguez A, Palenzuela S, Forteza C, Rossella KLD (2000) Congenital misalignment of pulmonary veins with alveolar capillary dysplasia causing persistent neonatal pulmonary hypertension: report of two affected siblings. Pediatr Dev Pathol 3:271–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Haidar A, Ryder TA, Wigglesworth JS (1991) Epithelial cell morphology and airspace size in hypoplastic human fetal lungs associated with oligohydramnios. Pediatr Pathol 11:839–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hall CB, Kopelman AE, Douglas RG Jr, Geiman JM, Meagher MP (1979) Neonatal respiratory syncytial virus infection. N Engl J Med 300:393–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Halliday H (2003) Respiratory distress syndrome. In: Greenhough A, Milner AD (eds) Neonatal Respiratory Disorders. Arnold, London, pp. 247– 271.Google Scholar
  94. Hamilton WJ, Boyd JD, Mossman HW (1972) Human Embryology. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 291–377.Google Scholar
  95. Han RN, Buch S, Freeman BA, Post M, Tanswell AK (1992) Platelet-derived growth factor and growth related genes in rat lung. II. Effect of exposure to 85% O2. Am J Physiol 262:L140–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Harding R, Hooper SB, Dickson KA (1990) A mechanism leading to reduced lung expansion and lung hypoplasia in fetal sheep during oligohydramnios. Am J Obstet Gynecol 163:1904–1913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Harding R, Hooper SB, Han VKM (1993) Abolition of fetal breathing movements by spinal cord transec-tion leads to reductions in fetal lung liquid volume, lung growth, and IGF-II gene expression. Pediatr Res 34:148–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Hardisson D, Garcia Jimenez JA, Jimenea Heffernan JA, Nistal M (1997) Rhabdomyomatosis of the newborn lung unassociated with other malformations. Histo-pathology 31:474–479.Google Scholar
  99. Haworth SG (1988) Pulmonary vascular remodelling in neonatal pulmonary hypertension. State of the art. Chest 93:133S–138S.Google Scholar
  100. Heerema AE, Rabban JT, Sydorak RM, Harrison MR, Jones KD (2003) Lung pathology in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia treated with fetal surgical intervention, including tracheal occlusion. Pediatr Dev Pathol 6:536–546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Heithoff KB, Sane SM, Williams JW, et al. (1976) Bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. A unifying concept. Am J Roentgenol 126:46–55.Google Scholar
  102. Hicks BA, Contador M, Perlman JM (1996) Laryngeal atresia in the newborn: surgical implications. Am J Perinatol 13:409–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Hill DA, Dehner LP, Ackerman LV (2004). A cautionary note about congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) type 4. Am J Surg Pathol 28:554–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Hislop A (2003) Fetal and postnatal anatomical lung development. In: Greenough A, Milner AD (eds) Neonatal Respiratory Disorders. Arnold, London, pp. 3–11.Google Scholar
  105. Hislop A, Hey E, Reid L (1979) The lungs in congenital bilateral renal agenesis and dysplasia. Arch Dis Child 54:32–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Hislop AA, Haworth SG (1990) Pulmonary vascular damage and the development of cor pulmonale following hyaline membrane disease. Pediatr Pulmonol 9:152–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hislop AA, Howarth SG (1989) Airway size and structure in the normal fetal and infant lung and the effect of premature delivery and artificial ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis 140:1717–1726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Hislop AA, Wigglesworth JS, Desai R (1986) Alveolar development in the human fetus and infant. Early Hum Dev 13:1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Hodson WA (1992) Normal and abnormal structural development of the lung. In: Polin RA, Fox WW (eds) Fetal and Neonatal Physiology. WB Saunders, London, pp. 771–782.Google Scholar
  110. Holder MP, Wooler GH (1970) Tracheo-oesophageal fistula and oesophageal atresia: results of 30 years' experience. Thorax 25:406–412.Google Scholar
  111. Hooper SB, Harding R (1995) Fetal lung liquid: a major determinant of the growth and functional development of the fetal lung. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 22:235–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Huang RY, Shapiro NL (2000) Structural airway anomalies in patients with DiGeorge syndrome: a current review. Am J Otolaryngol 21:326–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Husain AN, Hessel RG (1993) Neonatal pulmonary hypoplasia: an autopsy study of 25 cases. Pediatr Pathol 13:475–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Imai Y, Mark EJ (2002) Cystic adenomatoid change is common to various forms of cystic lung diseases of children: a clinicopathologic analysis of 10 cases with emphasis on tracing the bronchial tree. Arch Pathol Lab Med 126:934–940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Janney CG, Askin FB, Kuhn CK (1981) Congenital alveolar dysplasia—an unusual cause of respiratory distress in the newborn. Am J Clin Pathol 76:722– 727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Jobe AH (2003) Antenatal factors and the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Semin Neonatol 8:9–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Jobe AH, Bancalari R (2001). Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. NICHD/NHLBI/ORD Workshop Summary. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 163:1723–1729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Kaslovsky RA, Purdy S, Dangman BC, McKenna BJ, Brien T, Ilves R (1997) Bronchoalveolar carcinoma in a child with congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation. Chest 112:548–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Kassner EG, Kauffman SL, Yoon JJ, et al. (1981) Pulmonary candidiasis in infants: clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features. Am J Roentgenol 137:707– 716.Google Scholar
  120. Katz VL, Bowes WA (1992) Meconium aspiration syndrome: reflections on a murky subject. Am J Obstet Gynecol 166:171–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Kaufmann V, Kohler G (1995) Congenital posterior laryngotracheoesophageal cleft with subglottic stenosis: a case report. Pediatr Pathol 15:321–325.Google Scholar
  122. Kearney MS (1999) Chronic intrauterine meconium aspiration causes fetal lung infarcts, lung rupture and meconium embolism. Pedatr Dev Pathol 2:544– 551.Google Scholar
  123. Keller MA, Sellers BB, Melish ME, et al. (1977) Systemic candidiasis in infants. Am J Dis Child 131:1260–1263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Khong TY, Frappell J, Steel HM, Stewart CM, Burke M (1986) Perinatal listeriosis. A report of six cases. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 93:1083–1087.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Kitterman JA (1984) Fetal lung development. J Dev Physiol 6:67–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Kizilcan F, Tanyel C, Cakar N, Buyukpamukcu N, Hicsonmez A (1995) The effect of low amniotic pressure without oligohydramnios on fetal lung development in a rabbit model. Am J Obstet Gynecol 173(a):36–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Knowles S, Thomas RM, Lindenbaum RH, Keeling JW, Winter RM (1988) Pulmonary agenesis as part of the VACTERL sequence. Arch Dis Child 63:723–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Kubba H, Gibson D, Bailey M, Hartley B (2005) Techniques and outcomes of laryngeal cleft repair: an update to the Great Ormond Street Hospital series. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 114:309–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Kuhn C, Kuhn JP (1992) Coexistence of bronchial atresia and bronchogenic cyst: diagnostic criteria and embryologic considerations. Pediatr Radiol 22:568–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Laberge JM, Puligandla P, Flageole H (2005) Asymptomatic congenital lung malformations. Semin Pediatr Surg 14:16–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Lackner RP, Thompson AB III, Rikkers LF, Galbraith TA (1996) Cystic adenomatoid malformation involving an entire lung in a 22-year-old women. Ann Thorac Surg 61:1827–1829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Lamont RF, Taylor-Robinson D, Wigglesworth JS, et al. (1987) The role of mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and chlamydiae in the genital tract of women presenting in spontaneous early preterm labour. J Med Micro-biol 24:253–257.Google Scholar
  133. Lander TA, Schauer G, Bendel-Stenzel E, Sidman JD (2004) Tracheal agenesis in the newborn. Laryngoscope 114:1633–1636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Landing BH (1984) Five syndromes (malformation complexes) of pulmonary symmetry, congenital heart disease, and multiple spleens. Pediatr Pathol 2:125–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Landing BH, Dixon LG (1979) Congenital malformations and genetic disorders of the respiratory tract. Am Rev Respir Dis 120:151–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Landing BH, Wells TR (1973) Tracheobronchial anomalies in children. In: Rosenberg HS, Bolande RP (eds) Perspectives in Pediatric Pathology, vol 1. Year Book, Chicago, pp. 1–32.Google Scholar
  137. Langston C (1991) Misalignment of pulmonary veins and alveolar capillary dysplasia. Pediatr Pathol 11:163–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Langston C (2003) New concepts in the pathology of congenital lung malformations. Semin Pediatr Surg 12:17–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Langston C, Kida K, Reed M, Thurlbeck WM (1984) Human lung growth in late gestation and in the neonate. Am Rev Respir Dis 129:607–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Laurence KM (1955) Congenital pulmonary lymphan-giectasis. J Pathol Bacteriol 70:325–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Lauria MR, Gonik B, Romero R (1995) Pulmonary hypoplasia: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and antenatal prediction. Obstet Gynecol 86:466–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Liggins GC, Vilos GA, Campos GA, Kitterman JA, Lee CH (1981) The effect of bilateral thoracoplasty in lung development in fetal sheep. J Dev Physiol 3:275–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Lim TA, Spanier SS, Kohut RI (1979) Laryngeal clefts: a histopathologic study and review. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 88:837–845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Linna O, Hyrynkangas K, Kaukola T, Pajunen L (2004) Congenital subglottic stenosis in two unrelated pairs of siblings. Acta Paediatr 93:565–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Loeff DS, Filler RM, Vinograd I, et al. (1990) Congenital tracheal stenosis: a review of 22 patients from 1965– 1987. J Pediatr Surg 25:492–495.Google Scholar
  146. Low JA (1997) Intrapartum fetal asphyxia: definition, diagnosis and classification. Am J Obstet Gynecol 176:957–959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. MacSweeney F, Papagiannopoulos K, Goldstraw P, Sheppard MN, Corrin B, Nicholson AG (2003) An assessment of the expanded classification of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations and their relationship to malignant transformation. Am J Surg Pathol 27:1139–1146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Maeda J, Yamagishi H, Matsuoka, et al. (2000) Frequent association of 22q11.2 deletion with tetralogy of Fallot. Am J Med Genet 5:269–272.Google Scholar
  149. Mani H, Suarez E, Stocker JT (2004) The morphologic spectrum of infantile lobar emphysema: a study of 33 cases. Paediatr Respir Rev 5(suppl A):S313–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Manning SC, Inglis AF, Mouzakes J, Carron J, Perkins JA (2005). Laryngeal anatomic differences in pediat-ric patients with severe laryngomalacia. Arch Otolar-yngol Head Neck Surg 131:340–343.Google Scholar
  151. Margraf LR, Tomashefski JF Jr, Bruce MC, Dahms BB (1991) Morphometric analysis of the lung in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am Rev Respir Dis 143:391–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Maritz GS, Morley CJ, Harding R (2005) Early developmental origins of impaired lung structure and function. Early Hum Dev 81:763–771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Matsuda T, Nakajima T, Hattori S, et al. (1997) Necro-tizing funisitis: clinical significance and association with chronic lung disease in premature infants. Am J Obstet Gynecol 177:1402–1407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Matturri L, Lavezzi AM, Minoli I, et al. (2003) Association between pulmonary hypoplasia and hypoplasia of arcuate nucleus in stillbirth. J Perinatol 23:328–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. McDougall J, Smith JF (1975) The development of the human type II pneumocyte. J Pathol 115:245–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. McMillen WG, Duvall AJ (1968) Congenital subglottic stenosis. Arch Otolaryngol 87:272–278.Google Scholar
  157. McNie DJM, Pryse-Davies J (1970) Tracheal agenesis. Arch Dis Child 45:143–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Mendelson CR, Boggaram V (1989) Regulation of pulmonary surfactant protein synthesis in fetal lung: a major role of glucocorticoids and cyclic AMP. Trends Endocrinol Metabol 1:20–25.Google Scholar
  159. Merritt TA (1982) Oxygen exposure in the newborn guinea pig lung lavage cell populations, chemotactic and elastase response: a possible relationship to neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatr Res 16:798–805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. pleuropulmonary blastoma. J Pediatr Surg 41:66– 71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Mitchell DB, Irwin C, Bailey CM, Evans NG (1987) Cysts of the infants larynx. J Laryngol Otol 101:833–837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Modlin JF (1986) Perinatal echovirus infection: insights from a literature review of 61 cases of serious infection and 16 outbreaks in nurseries. Rev Infect Dis 8:918–926.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Morgan T, Anderson J, Jorden M, Keller K, Robinson T, Hintz S (2003) Pulmonary glial heterotopia in a monoamniotic twin. Pediatr Pulmonol 36:162–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Mori M, Kidogawah H, Moritaka T, et al. (1993) Bronchial atresia: report of a case and review of the literature. Surg Today 23:449–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Moses D, Holm BA, Spitale P, et al. (1991) Inhibition of pulmonary surfactant function by meconium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 164:477–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Murch SH, Costeloe K, Klein NJ, et al. (1996a) Mucosal tumor necrosis factor-alpha production and extensive disruption of sulfated glycosaminoglycans begin within hours of birth in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatr Res 40:484–489.Google Scholar
  167. Murch SH, Costeloe K, Klein NJ, MacDonald TT (1996b) Early production of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha occurs in RDS and is associated with poor outcome. Pediatr Res 40:490–497.Google Scholar
  168. Murphy JS, Vawter GF, Reid LM (1984) Pulmonary vascular diseases in fetal meconium aspiration. J Pediatr 104:758–762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Murray JC, Schutte BC (2004) Cleft palate: players, pathways and pursuits. J Clin Invest 113:1676–1678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Nakamura Y, Harada K, Yamamoto I, et al. (1992) Human pulmonary hypoplasia. Statistical, morphological, morphometric and biochemical study. Arch Pathol Lab Med 116:635–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Nardo L, Hooper SB, Harding R (1998) Simulation of lung growth by tracheal obstruction in fetal sheep: relation to luminal pressure and lung liquid volume. Pediatr Res 43:184–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Ng KJ, Hasan N, Gray ES, Jeffrey RR, Youngson GG (1994) Intralobar bronchopulmonary sequestration: antenatal diagnosis. Thorax 49:379–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Nicolini U, Fisk NM, Rodeck CH, Talbert DG, Wigglesworth JS (1989) Low amniotic pressure in oligohydramnios—is this the cause of pulmonary hypoplasia? Am J Obstet Gynecol 161:1098–1101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Nimrod C, Varela-Gittings F, Machin G, Campbell D, Wesenberg R (1984) The effect of prolonged membrane rupture on fetal development. Am J Obstet Gynecol 148:540–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Northway WH, Rosan RC, Porter DY (1967) Pulmonary disease following respiratory therapy for hyaline membrane disease. N Engl J Med 276:357–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Oelberg DG, Downery SA, Flynn MM (1990) Bile salt induced intracellular Ca accumulation in type 2 pneumocytes. Lung 168:297–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Oldenburg J, Van der Pal HJH, Schrevel LS, Blok APR, Wagenvoort CA (1995) Misalignment of lung vessels and alveolar capillary dysplasia. Histopathology 27:192–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Olver RE, Strang LB (1974) Ion fluxes across the pulmonary epithelium and the secretion of lung liquid in the foetal lamb. J Physiol 241:327–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Oppenheimer EH, Dahms BB (1981) Congenital syphilis in the fetus and neonate. In: Rosenberg HS, Bernstein J (eds) Perspectives in Pediatric Pathology, vol 6. Year Book Medical, Chicago, pp. 112–138.Google Scholar
  180. Orpen N, Goodman R, Bowker C, Lakhoo K (2003) Intralobar pulmonary sequestration with congenital cystic adenomatous malformation and rhabdo-myomatous dysplasia. Pediatr Surg Int 19:610–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Ostor AG, Stillwell R, Fortune DW (1978) Bilateral pulmonary agenesis. Pathology 10:243–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Page DV, Stocker JT (1982) Anomalies associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. Am Rev Respir Dis 125:216– 221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Pagon RA, Graham JM (1981) Coloboma, congenital heart disease and choanal atresia with multiple anomalies: CHARGE association. J Pediatr 99:223– 227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Perlman EJ, Moore GW, Hutchins GM (1989) The pulmonary vasculature in meconium aspiration. Hum Pathol 20:701–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Pham TT, Benirschke K, Masliah E, Stocker JT, Yi ES (2004) Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation) with multiple extrapulmonary anomalies: autopsy report of a fetus at 19 weeks of gestation. Pediatr Dev Pathol 7:661–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Piedboeuf B, Laberge JM, Ghitulescu G, et al. (1997) Deleterious effect of tracheal obstruction on type II pneumocytes in fetal sheep. Pediatr Res 41:473–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Pinar H, Makarova N, Rubin LP, Singer DB (1994) Pathology of the lung in surfactant-treated neonates. Pediatr Pathol 14:627–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Podlech J, Richter J, Czygan P, Klein PJ, Muentefering H (1995) Bilateral agenesis/aplasia of the lungs: report of a second case in the offspring of one woman. Pediatr Pathol Lab Med 15:781–790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Raine J, Hislop AA, Redington AN, Haworth SG, Shinebourne EA (1991) Fatal persistent pulmonary hypertension presenting late in the neonatal period. Arch Dis Child 66:398–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Ribvet ME, Copin MC, Soots JG, Gosselin BH (1995) Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation. Ann Thorac Surg 60:1126–1128.Google Scholar
  191. Rice R, Spencer B, Connor EC, et al. (2004). Disruption of FgF10/Fgfr2b-coordinated epithelial-mesenchymal interactions causes cleft palate. J Clin Invest 113:1692–1700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Riedlinger WFJ, Vargas SO, Jennings RW, et al. (2006) Bronchial atresia is common to extralobar sequestration, intralobar sequestration, congenital cystic ade-nomatoid malformation and lobar emphysema. Pediatr Develop Pathol 9:361–373.Google Scholar
  193. Robertson B (1991) The origin of neonatal lung injury [editorial]. Pediatr Pathol 11:iii–vi.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Robson PJ, Smid M, Bannerjee S, Wigglesworth JS, Nicolini U (1993) Extreme prematurity or pulmonary hypoplasia: the inevitable consequences of second trimester premature rupture of membranes? J Obstet Gynaecol 13:320–328.Google Scholar
  195. Romero R, Hanaoka S, Mazor M, et al. (1991) Meconium-stained amniotic fluid: a risk factor for microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 164:859–862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Rooney SA (1989) Fatty acid synthesis in developing fetal lung. Am J Physiol 257:L195–L207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Rutledge JC, Jensen P (1986) Acinar dysplasia: a new form of pulmonary maldevelopment. Hum Pathol 17:1290–1293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Salyer DC, Salyer WR, Eggleston JC (1977) Benign developmental cysts of the mediastinum. Arch Pathol Lab Med 101:136–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Samuel M, Burge DM, Griffiths DM (1997) Prenatal diagnosis of laryngotracheoesophageal clefts. Fetal Diagn Ther 12:260–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Saugstad OD (1990) Oxygen toxicity in the neonatal period. Acta Paediatr Scand 79:881–892.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Saugstad OD (1997) Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and oxidative stress: are we closer to an understanding of the pathogenesis of BPD? Acta Pediatr 86:1277– 1282.Google Scholar
  202. Saugstad OD (2003) Bronchopulmonary dysplasia— oxidative stress and antioxidants. Semin Neonatol 8:39–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Schmidt B, Vegh P, Weitz J, et al. (1992) Thrombin/ antithrombin III complex formation in the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 145:767–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Sen P, Thakur N, Stockton DW, Langston C, Bejjani BA (2004) Expanding the phenotype of alveolar capillary dysplasia (ACD). J Pediatr 145:646–651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Sgrignoli A, Yen DRL, Hutchins GM (1994) Giant cell and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia associated with fetal pneumonia. Pediatr Pathol 14:955– 965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Shannon JM, Hyatt BA (2004) Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in the developing lung. Annu Rev Physiol 66:625–645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Sigurdson SL, Lwebuga-Mukasa MS (1994) Divalent cation-dependent regulation of rat alveolar epithelial cell adhesion and spreading. Exp Cell Res 213:71– 79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Silver MM, Thurston WA, Patrick JE (1988) Perinatal pulmonary hyperplasia due to laryngeal atresia. Hum Pathol 19:110–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Sizun J, Soupre D, Legrand MC, et al. (1994) Coronavi-rus infection in 19 infants admitted to intensive care. A retrospective study using immunofluorescence. Arch Pediatr 1:477–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Slovotinek AM, Tifft CJ (2002) Fraser syndrome and cryptophthalmos: review of the diagnostic criteria and evidence for phenotypic modules in complex malformation syndromes. J Med Genet 39:623–633.Google Scholar
  211. Smith BT, Post M (1989) Fibroblast pneumocyte factor. Am J Physiol 257:L174–L178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Smith II, Bain AD (1965) Congenital atresia of the larynx. A report of nine cases. Ann Otol Rhinol Lar-yngol 74:338–349.Google Scholar
  213. Sosenko IRS, Bancalari E, Greenhough A (2003) Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. In: Greenough A, Milner AD (eds) Neonatal Respiratory Disorders. Arnold, London, pp. 399–422.Google Scholar
  214. Sotomayor JJ, Godinez RI, Borden S, Wilmott RW (1986) Large airway collapse due to acquired tra-cheobronchomalacia in infancy. Am J Dis Child 140:367–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Srikanth MS, Ford EG, Stanley P, Hossein Mahour G (1992) Communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: classification and embryogenesis. J Pediatr Surg 27:732–736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Stahl GE, Spear ML, Hamosh M (1992) Lipid infusions and pulmonary function abnormalities. In: Polin RA, Fox WW (eds) Fetal and Neonatal Physiology. Saunders, London, pp. 346–352.Google Scholar
  217. Stewart PA, Becker AE, Wladimiroff JW, Essed CE (1984) Left atrial isomerism associated with asplenia: prenatal echocardiographic detection of complex congenital cardiac malformations. J Am Coll Cardiol 4:1015–1020.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Stocker JT (1994) Congenital and developmental diseases. In: Dail DH, Hammar SP (eds) Pulmonary Pathology. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 155–190.Google Scholar
  219. Stocker JT, Drake RM, Madewell JE (1978) Cystic and congenital lung diseases in the newborn. In: Rosenberg HS, Bolande RP (eds) Chicargo Year Book Publishers, Chicargo. Perspect Pediatr Pathol 4:93–154.Google Scholar
  220. Stocker JT, Kagan-Hallet K (1979) Extralobar pulmonary sequestration. Am J Clin Pathol 72:917–925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. EGF-receptor in normal and injured developing human lung. Pediatr Res 38:851–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Swischuk LE, Richardson CJ, Nichols MH, Ingman MJ (1979) Primary pulmonary hypoplasia in the neonate. J Pediatr 95:573–577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Taghizadeh A, Reynolds EOR (1976) Pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia following hyaline membrane disease. Am J Pathol 82:241–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Teplitz C (1965) Pathogenesis of Pseudomonas vas-culitis and septic lesions. Arch Pathol 80:297–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Thibeault DW, Mabry SM, Ekekezie II, Zhang X, Truog WE (2003) Collagen scaffolding during development and its deformation with chronic lung disease. Pediatrics 111:766–776.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Thibeault DW, Mabry SM, Norberg M, Truog WE, Ekekezie II (2004) Lung microvascular adaptation in infants with chronic lung disease. Biol Neonate 85:273–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Thompson DM, Kasperbauer JL (1994) Congenital cystic hygroma involving the larynx presenting as an airway emergency. J Nat Med Assoc 86:629– 632.Google Scholar
  228. Thornton CM, Halliday HL, O'Hara MD (1994) Surfactant replacement therapy in preterm neonates: a comparison of postmortem pulmonary histology in treated and untreated infants. Pediatr Pathol 14:945–953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Thureen PJ, Hall DM, Hoffenberg A, Tyson RW (1997) Fatal meconium aspiration in spite of appropriate perinatal airway management: pulmonary and pla-cental evidence of prenatal disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 176:967–975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Tucker GF, Ossoff RH, Newman AN, Holinger LD (1979) Histopathology of congenital subglottic stenosis. Laryngoscope 89:866–876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Ueda K, Gruppo R, Unger F, Martin L, Bove K (1977) Rhabdomyosarcoma of the lung arising in a congenital adenomatoid malformation. Cancer 40:383–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Ulloa-Gutierrez R, Skippen P, Synnes A, et al. (2004) Life-threatening human metapneumovirus pneumonia requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a preterm infant. Pediatrics 114:e517–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Vawter GF (1981) Perinatal listeriosis. In: Rosenberg HS, Bernstein J (eds) Perspectives in Pediatric Pathology, vol 6. Year Book Medical, Chicago, pp. 153–156.Google Scholar
  234. Virtanen I, Laitinen A, Tani T, et al. (1996) Differential expression of laminins and their integrin receptors in developing and adult human lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 15:184–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Wagenvoort CA (1986) Misalignment of lung vessels: a syndrome causing persistent neonatal pulmonary hypertension. Hum Pathol 17:727–730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Walford N, Htun K, Chen J, Liu YY, Teo H, Yeo GS (2003) Intralobar sequestration of the lung is a congenital anomaly: anatomopathological analysis of four cases diagnosed in fetal life. Pediatr Dev Pathol 6:314–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Walters DV, Ramsden CA (1987) The secretion and absorption of fetal lung liquid. In: Walters DV, Strang LB, Geubelle F (eds) Physiology of the Fetal and Neonatal Lung. MTP Press, England, pp. 61–75.Google Scholar
  238. Wang EEL, Ohlsson A, Kellner JD (1995) Association of Ureaplasma urealyticum colonization with chronic lung disease of prematurity: results of a metaanaly-sis. J Pediatr 127:640–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Warner JO, Rubin S, Heard BE (1982) Congenital lobar emphysema: a case with bronchial atresia and abnormal bronchial cartilage. Br J Dis Chest 76:177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Watterberg KL, Carmichael DF, Gerdes JS, et al. (1994) Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor and lung inflammation in developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr 25:264–269.Google Scholar
  241. Wells TR, Wells AL, Galvis DA, et al. (1990) Diagnostic aspects and syndromal associations of short trachea with bronchial intubation. Am J Dis Child 144:1369–1371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Whyte RK, Hussain Z, De Sa DJ (1982) Antenatal infections with candida. Arch Dis Child 57:528–535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Wigglesworth JS (1977) Expansion of the infant lung. Pathology of neonatal respiratory distress. Proc R Soc Med 70:861–863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Wigglesworth JS (1987a) Pathology of the lung in the fetus and neonate, with special reference to problems of growth and maturation. Histopathology 11:671– 689.Google Scholar
  245. Wigglesworth JS (1987b) Factors affecting fetal lung growth. In: Walters DV, Strang LB, Geubelle F (eds) Physiology of the Fetal and Neonatal Lung. MTP Press, England, pp. 25–36.Google Scholar
  246. Wigglesworth JS, Desai R (1981) Use of DNA estimation for growth assessment in normal and hypoplastic fetal lungs. Arch Dis Child 56:601–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Wigglesworth JS, Desai R (1982) Is fetal respiratory function a major determinant of perinatal survival? Lancet 1:264–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Wigglesworth JS, Desai R, Guerrini P (1981) Fetal lung hypoplasia: biochemical and structural variations and their possible significance. Arch Dis Child 56:606–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Wigglesworth JS, Desai R, Hislop AA (1987) Fetal lung growth in congenital laryngeal atresia. Pediatr Pathol 7:515–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Wilcox DT, Glick PL, Karamanoukian HL, Holm BA (1997) Contributions by individual lungs to the surfactant status in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatr Res 41:686–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Winter RM, Knowles SAS, Bieber FR, Baraitser M (1988) The Malformed Fetus and Stillbirth. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, New York.Google Scholar
  252. Wiswell TE, Tuggle JM, Turner BS (1990) Meconium aspiration syndrome: have we made a difference? Pediatrics 85:715–721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Wright JR, Clements JA (1987) Metabolism and turnover of pulmonary surfactant. Am Rev Respir Dis 136:426–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Yu VY, Ng P-C (1995) Chronic lung disease. Pulmonary problems in the perinatal period and their sequelae. Baillieres Clin Paediatr 3:147–170.Google Scholar
  255. Zaaijman J du T, Wilkinson AR, Keeling JW, Mitchell RG, Turnbull AC (1986) Spontaneous premature rupture of the membranes: bacteriology, histology and neonatal outcome. J Obstet Gynaecol 2:155– 160.Google Scholar
  256. Zaw-Tun HIA (1988) Development of congenital laryn-geal atresias and clefts. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 97:353–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steve J. Gould
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cellular PathologyJohn Radcliffe HospitalOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations