Robotic Urologic Surgery: An Introduction and Vision for the Future

  • Nicholas J. Hegarty
  • Inderbir S. Gill


Robots have been defined as “a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks” by the Robot Institute of America. Websters’ English dictionary describes robots as “an automatic apparatus or device that performs functions normally ascribed to humans or operates with what appears to be almost human intelligence.” These definitions encompass three levels of functionality—the ability to perform defined maneuvers, the ability to perform such tasks in a preprogrammed order, and the ability to interpret and modify responses to commands, based on experience and learning.


Mobile Robot Industrial Robot Robotic Instrument Punch Card Mars Rover 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Capek K. Rossum’s Universal Robots. Playfair N, Selver P, trans. Landes WA, ed. New York: Doubleday; 1923.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Assimov I. Runaround. In: Astounding Science Fiction. Street & Smith Publications Inc.; March 1942.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Assimov I. I, Robot. Greenwich, CT; Fawcett; 1950.Google Scholar
  4. 4. Swanstrom LL, Kozarek R, Pasricha PJ, et al. Development of a new access device for transgasric surgery. J Gastointest Surg 2005;9:1129–1136.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas J. Hegarty
    • 1
  • Inderbir S. Gill
    • 2
  1. 1.Glickman Urological InstituteCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Section of Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery Glickman Urological InstituteCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations