Motion and Bone Regeneration

  • Ching-Chang Ko
  • Martha J. Somerman
  • Kai-Nan An
Part of the Topics in Bone Biology book series (TBB, volume 3)


Bone is a living material composed of cells and an extracellular matrix (ECM) that has a multi-component structure [4]. The ECM of bone is composed of three phases: an inorganic mineral phase, an organic phase, and an aqueous phase. The inorganic phase of bone is calcium hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. The organic phase consists primarily of collagen fibers and associated noncollagenous ECM proteins. The molecular configuration of collagen provides binding sites for hydroxyapatite crystal nucleation and growth. The ECM is created and maintained by active bone cells: osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes. Osteoblasts and osteocytes are involved in bone formation and maintenance, respectively, whereas osteoclasts promote resorption of bone [2], [99]. Bone is, in general, dynamic and constantly being remodeled by the action of these cells, and thus can regenerate itself.


Bone Formation Trabecular Bone Bone Morphogenetic Protein Fracture Healing Bone Regeneration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ching-Chang Ko
    • 1
  • Martha J. Somerman
    • 2
  • Kai-Nan An
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of OrthodonticsUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of DentistryChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Department of PeriodonticsUniversity of Washington School of DentistrySeattleUSA
  3. 3.Biomechanical Laboratory Department of OrthopedicsMayo Clinic RochesterRochesterUSA

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