Osteogenic Growth Factors and Cytokines and Their Role in Bone Repair

  • Louis C. Gerstenfeld
  • Cory M. Edgar
  • Sanjeev Kakar
  • Kimberly A. Jacobsen
  • Thomas A. Einhorn
Part of the Topics in Bone Biology book series (TBB, volume 3)


Ontogenetic development is initiated at the time of fertilization and terminates with the differentiation, growth, and maturation of specialized tissues and organs. These developmental processes are characterized by molecular specialization that accompanies cellular differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. Most developmental processes terminate after birth or when animals reach sexual maturity, but some morphogenetic processes are reinitiated in response to injury in specific tissues. One such regenerative process is the repair of skeletal fractures and bone tissue after surgery, a process that recapitulates specific aspects of the initial developmental processes in the course of healing [58, 209]. Several aspects of the postnatal tissue environment of fracture healing, however, are unique and differ from what occurs in embryological and postnatal development.


Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Bone Morphogenetic Protein Fracture Healing Bone Repair Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louis C. Gerstenfeld
    • 1
  • Cory M. Edgar
    • 1
  • Sanjeev Kakar
    • 1
  • Kimberly A. Jacobsen
    • 1
  • Thomas A. Einhorn
    • 1
  1. 1.Orthopedic Research Laboratory Department of Orthopedic Surgery Boston University Medical CenterBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA

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