Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Its Applications in Movement Disorders

  • Jiun-Jie WangEmail author
  • Yau-Yau Wai
Part of the Current Clinical Neurology book series (CCNEU, volume 44)


This chapter reviews the basic principles of diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in a comprehensive manner, including both diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We introduce the effect of water diffusion on MR signal and methods used to measure the diffusion coefficient using MRI. The diffusion tensor and tensor-derived indices are presented in an effort to characterize the anisotropic nature of in vivo diffusion. Tractography using DTI is also discussed. The second part of this chapter describes the recent findings in various neurological movement disorders using diffusion imaging, including idiopathic Parkinson disease (iPD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). The discussion includes studies based on regions located in the basal ganglia where changes of water diffusion coefficient have been reported, and impairment of white matter integrity where DTI has been most successful. The limitations of various diffusion imaging methods are discussed. The third part of this chapter presents an overview of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), an advanced technique for measurement of restricted and hindered water diffusion in biological environments that significantly improves sensitivity and specificity when compared with conventional DTI.


Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Fractional Anisotropy Diffusion Tensor Imaging Multiple System Atrophy Progressive Supranuclear Palsy 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medical Imaging and Radiological SciencesChang Gung UniversityTaoyuan CountyTaiwan
  2. 2.Medical Imaging and InterventionChang Gung Memorial Hospital, LinkouTaoyuan CountyTaiwan

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