Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease: Potential Biomarkers and Their Measurements

  • Subhendu Mukherjee
  • Dipak K. DasEmail author
Part of the Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice book series (OXISTRESS)


The oxygen atmosphere surrounding us produces continuous oxidative stress because of the incomplete reduction of the O2 molecule. Oxidative stress mainly occurs in any system when the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) exceeds the system’s ability to neutralize and eliminate them. This imbalance of ROS can result from various pathways. Overproduction of ROS and their limited removal can result from mitochondrial respiratory chain, a lack of antioxidant capacity, exposure to environmental or behavioral stressors, etc. Such accumulation of ROS or oxidative stress can cause damage to all biomolecules, including lipids, proteins, and DNA. For this reason, oxidative stress has been implicated in a growing list of human diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, heart failure, myocardial infarction, Alzheimer’s disease, fragile X syndrome, etc., as well as in the aging process. Chronic heart disease is the major cause of death worldwide in the present era, and it is known that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease. It is therefore very important to measure oxidative stress to check health. There are many techniques available to measure it. The major techniques include measurement of lipid peroxidation products, volatile hydrocarbons in breath, and oxidized DNA bases in urine. In this review, we will discuss potential biomarkers in cardiovascular disease and the methods of measuring oxidative stress.


Free radical Hydroxyl ion Malonaldehyde Nitric oxide Oxidative stress Reactive oxygen species 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardiovascular Research CenterUniversity of Connecticut Health Center, School of MedicineFarmingtonUSA

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