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Children with Craniofacial Syndromes

  • Wendy Estrellado-CruzEmail author
  • Robert C. Beckerman
Chapter
Part of the Respiratory Medicine book series (RM)

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is common in children with craniofacial anomalies, particularly in children with syndromal craniofacial synostosis associated with midfacial hypoplasia, micrognathia, muscular hypotonia, brain stem compression (achondroplasia), and/or deformation of the cranial base. These anomalies lead to a decrease in the size of the nasopharynx, oropharynx, or hypopharynx and can predispose the pharynx to collapse during sleep. Increased airway resistance secondary to adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the leading cause of secondary OSAS in these children. This chapter discusses the anatomy and dynamic characteristics of the upper airway during sleep to aid the understanding of sleep apnea syndrome.

Keywords

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Down Syndrome Airway Obstruction Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Pediatric Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, Department of PediatricsChildren’s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, UMKC School of MedicineKansas CityUSA

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