• Berthold LangguthEmail author


  1. 1.

    Tinnitus is not a single clinical or pathophysiologic entity. There are many forms of tinnitus that differ in their pathophysiology.

  2. 2.

    Exact diagnosis is required in each patient in order to provide the best management of tinnitus.

  3. 3.

    It is especially important to identify those patients who can be treated by specific interventions and those in which tinnitus is a symptom of a severe underlying disease and those patients who require immediate therapeutic action.

  4. 4.

    Exact diagnosis is also of great importance in clinical trials.

  5. 5.

    In the future, new methods such as functional neuroimaging may be found to have additional diagnostic value.



Tinnitus Diagnosis Heterogeneity Pathophysiology Diagnostic algorithm 


  1. 1.
    Grapengiesser CJC Versuche, den Galvanismus zur Heilung einiger Krankheiten anzuwenden Berlin: Myliussische Buchhandlung; 1801.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Van de Heyning P, K Vermeire, M Diebl et al (2008) Incapacitating unilateral tinnitus in single-sided deafness treated by cochlear implantation. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1179:645–52.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mardini MK (1987) Ear-clicking “tinnitus” responding to carbamazepine. N Engl J Med. 317.24:1542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Møller AR (1997) A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of baclofen in the treatment of tinnitus. Am J Otol. 18.2:268–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Langguth B, M Landgrebe, G Hajak et al (2008) Tinnitus and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Semin Hear. 29.3:288–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Langguth B, R Goodey, A Azevedo et al (2006) Consensus for tinnitus patient assessment and treatment outcome measurement: Tinnitus Research Initiative Meeting, Regensburg. Prog Brain Res. 166:525–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schlee W, T Hartmann, B Langguth et al (2009) Abnormal resting-state cortical coupling in chronic tinnitus. BMC Neurosci. 10.11.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    De Ridder D, E van der Loo, K Van der Kelen et al (2007) Do tonic and burst TMS modulate the lemniscal and extralemniscal system differentially? Int J Med Sci. 4.5:242–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and PsychotherapyUniversity of RegensburgRegensburgGermany
  2. 2.Interdisciplinary Tinnitus ClinicUniversity of RegensburgRegensburgGermany

Personalised recommendations