Hyperacusis and Disorders of Loudness Perception

Keypoints

  1. 1.

    There are several forms of loudness perception disorder.

     
  2. 2.

    The terminology of such disorders is often confused.

     
  3. 3.

    The most commonly used terms in an audiological context are hyperacusis, denoting a generalized reduced tolerance for sound, as well as phonophobia, denoting a fear of sounds.

     
  4. 4.

    The majority of people with a loudness perception disorder also have tinnitus. Just under one half of individuals with tinnitus also describe some degree of loudness perception disorder.

     
  5. 5.

    There are few rigorous studies regarding the epidemiology of loudness perception disorders; the true prevalence of hyperacuis and phonophobia remains a matter of conjecture.

     
  6. 6.

    Some loudness perception disorders are associated with disorders of facial nerve function with consequent loss of the acoustic reflex. Most cases have no such association and the underlying pathological mechanism is unclear.

     
  7. 7.

    Various management strategies have been suggested, including the use of tinnitus therapies, with or without the use of sound therapy, and psychological therapies.

     

Keywords

Tinnitus Hyperacusis Hypersensitivity Loudness discomfort Migraine 

References

  1. 1.
    Vernon, JA. Pathophysiology of tinnitus: a special case – hyperacusis and a proposed treatment. Am J Otol 1987; 8: 201–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Perlman, HB. Hyperacusis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1938; 47: 947–953Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mathisen, H. Phonophobia after stapedectomy. Acta Otolaryngol 1969; 68: 73–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Klein, AJ, Armstrong, BL, Greer, MK, and Brown, III FR. Hyperacusis and otitis media in individuals with Williams syndrome. Journal of Speech Hear Disord 1990; 55: 339–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baguley, DM and Andersson, G. Hyperacusis: Mechanisms, Diagnosis and Therapies. San Diego, Plural, 2007Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jastreboff, PJ and Hazell, JWP. Tinnitus Retraining Therapy. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gordon, AG. Abnormal middle ear muscle reflexes and audiosensitivity. Br J Audiol 1986; 20: 95–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Minor, LB, Cremer, PD, Carey, JP, Della Santina, CC, Streubel, SO, and Weg, N. Symptoms and signs in superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2001; 942: 259–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Banerjee, A, Whyte, A, and Atlas, MD. Superior canal dehiscence: review of a new condition. Clin Otolaryngol 2005; 30: 9–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Woodhouse, A and Drummond, PD. Mechanisms of increased sensitivity to noise and light in migraine headache. Cephalgia 1993; 13: 417–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hazell, JWP, Sheldrake, JB, and Graham, RL. Decreased sound tolerance: predisposing factors, triggers and outcomes after TRT. In: Patuzzi R (ed) Proceedings of the Seventh International Tinnitus Seminar 2002. Perth, University of Western Australia, 2002: 255–261Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jastreboff, PJ. Tinnitus retraining treatment for patients with tinnitus and decreased sound tolerance. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 2003; 36: 321–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fowler, EP. A method for the early detection of otosclerosis. Arch Otolaryngol 1936; 24: 731–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moore, BCJ. Cochlear Hearing Loss. London, Whurr, 1998Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gomes, E, Pedroso, FS, and Wagner, MB. Auditory hypersensitivity in the autistic spectrum disorder. Pro Fono 2008; 20: 279–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gomot, M, Belmonte, MK, Bullmore, ET, Bernard, FA, and Baron-Cohen, S. Brain hyper-reactivity to auditory novel targets in children with high-functioning autism. Brain 2008; 131: 2479–2488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Goldberg, J, Anderson, DE, and Wilder, S. Startle reflex habituation in children with cerebral palsy. Percept Mot Skills 1979; 48(3 Pt 2): 1135–1139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Westcott M. Case study: management of hyperacusis associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. In: Patuzzi R (ed) Proceedings of the Seventh International Tinnitus Seminar 2002. Perth, University of Western Australia; 2002: 280-285Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fabijanska, A, Rogowski, M, Bartnik, G, and Skarzynski, H. Epidemiology of tinnitus and hyperacusis in Poland. In: Hazell JWP (ed) Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar. London, The Tinnitus and Hyperacusis Centre; 1999: 569–571Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Andersson, G, Lindvall, N, Hursti, T, and Carlbring, P. Hypersensitivity to sound (hyperacusis): a prevalence study conducted via the Internet and post. Int J Audiol 2002; 41: 545–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bartnik, G, Fabijanska, A, and Rogowski, M. Our experience in treatment of patients with tinnitus and/or hyperacusis using the habituation method. In: Hazell JWP (ed) Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar. London, The Tinnitus and Hyperacusis Centre; 1999: 416–417Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jastreboff, PJ and Jastreboff, MM. Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) as a method for treatment of tinnitus and hyperacusis patients. J Am Acad Audiol 2000; 11: 162–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Anari, M, Axelsson A, Eliasson, A, and Magnusson, L. Hypersensitivity to sound Questionnaire data, audiometry and classification. Scand Audiol 1999; 28: 219–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Andersson, G, Baguley, DM, McKenna, L, and McFerran, DJ. Tinnitus: A Multidisciplinary Approach. London, Whurr, 2005Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Silberstein, SD. Migraine symptoms: results of a survey of self-reported migraineurs. Headache 1995; 35: 387–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fagelson, MA. The association between tinnitus and posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Audiol 2007; 16: 107–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Katzenell, U, and Segal, S. Hyperacusis: review and clinical guidelines. Otol Neurotol 2001; 22: 321–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Baloh, RW. Neurotology of migraine. Headache 1997; 37: 615–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nields, JA, Fallon, BA, and Jastreboff, PJ. Carbamazepine in the treatment of Lyme disease-induced hyperacusis. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999; 11: 97–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Marriage, J and Barnes, NM. Is central hyperacusis a symptom of 5 hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) dysfunction? J Laryngol Otol 1995; 109: 915–921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Blomberg, S, Rosander, M, and Andersson, G. Fears, hyperacusis and musicality in Williams syndrome. Res Dev Disabil 2006; 27: 668–680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sahley, TL, Nodar, RH, and Musiek, FE. Efferent Auditory System: Structure and Function. San Diego, Singular, 1997Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sahley, TL and Nodar, RH. A biochemical model of peripheral tinnitus. Hear Res 2001; 182: 43–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Formby, C, Sherlock, LP, and Gold, SL. Adaptive plasticity of loudness induced by chronic attenuation and enhancement of the acoustic background. J Acoust Soc Am 2003; 114: 55–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Asmundson, GJ, Norton, PJ, and Norton, GR. Beyond pain: the role of fear and avoidance in chronicity. Clin Psychol Rev 1999; 19: 97–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Vlaeyen, JW and Linton, SJ. Fear-avoidance and its consequences in chronic musculoskeletal pain: a state of the art. Pain 2000; 85: 317–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lethem, J, Slade, PD, Troup, JDG, and Bentley, G. Outline of a fear-avoidance model of exaggerated pain perception-I. Behav Res Ther 1983; 21: 401–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Stansfeld, SA. Noise, noise sensitivity and psychiatric disorder: epidemiological and psychophysiological studies. Psychol Med Suppl 1992; 22: 1–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Engel, GL. The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science 1997; 196: 129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dubal, S and Viaud-Delmon, I. Magical ideation and hyperacusis. Cortex 2008; 44: 1379–1386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Khalfa, S, Dubal, S, Veuillet, E, Perez-Seliaz, F, Jouvent, R, and Collet, L. Psychometric normalisation of a hyperacusis questionnaire. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 2002; 64: 436–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Stephens, SD, Blegvad, B, and Krogh, HJ. The value of some suprathreshold auditory measures. Scand Audiol 1977; 6: 213–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Valente, M, Potts, LG, and Valente, M. Differences and intersubject variability of loudness discomfort levels measured in sound pressure level and hearing level for TDH-50P and ER-3A earphones. J Am Acad Audiol 1997; 8: 59–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nelting, M, Rienhoff, NK, Hesse, G, and Lamparter, U. The assessment of subjective distress related to hyperacusis with a self-rating questionnaire on hypersensitivity to sound. Laryngorhinootologie 2002; 81: 32–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dauman, R and Bouscau-Faure, F. Assessment and amelioration of hyperacusis in tinnitus patients. Acta Otolaryngol 2005; 125: 503–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Vernon, JA and Meikle, MB. Tinnitus masking. In: Tyler RS (ed) Tinnitus Handbook. San Diego: Singular Thomson Learning 2000: 313–356Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Noreña, AJ and Chery-Croze, S. Enriched acoustic environment rescales auditory sensitivity. Neuroreport 2007; 18: 1251–1255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gold, S, Formby, C, Frederick, EA, and Suter, C. Shifts in loudness discomfort level in tinnitus patients with and without hyperacusis. In: Patuzzi R (ed) Proceedings of the Seventh International Tinnitus Seminar 2002. Perth, University of Western Australia, 2002: 170–172Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    McKinney, CJ, Hazell, JWP, and Graham, RL. Changes in loudness discomfort level and sensitivity to environmental sound with habituation based therapy. In: Hazell J (ed) Proceedings of the Sixth International Tinnitus Seminar. Cambridge, The Tinnitus and Hyperacusis Centre; 1999: 499–501Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Baguley, DM. Current perspectives on hyperacusis J Royal Society of Medicine, 2003, 96, 1–4Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Levitin, DJ, Cole, K, Lincoln, A and Bellugi, U. Aversion, awareness and attraction: investigating claims of hyperacusis in the Williams syndrome phenotype, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2005, 46, 514–523Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Van Borsel, J, Curfs, LMG and Fryns, JP. Hyperacusis in Willams syndrome: a sample survey study. Genetic Conselling, 1997, 8, 121–126Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jastreboff, PJ and Hazell, JWP. A neurophysiological approach to tinnitus: clinical implications. British Journal of Audiology, 1993, 27, 7–17Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Andersson, G, Lyttkens, L and Larsen, HC. Tinnitus and anxiety sensitivity. Scandinavian J of Behaviour Therapy 1999, 27, 57–64Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cambridge University HospitalsCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations