Mechanisms of Resistance in Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis

  • Michael R. Jacobs
Part of the Infectious Disease book series (ID)

Haemophilus infl uenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis are found as both respiratory tract commensals and respiratory and invasive pathogens. While it is ideal to tailor chemotherapy to a known pathogen with a known drug susceptibility profi le it is often diffi cult or impractical to isolate the causative agent, and many infections are treated empirically (1). It is therefore important to know the activity of antimicrobial agents against the pathogens associated with diseases being treated empirically and the effect of resistance mechanisms on in vivo activity. Antimicrobial agents should be used rationally, avoiding overuse, tailoring treatment to identifi ed pathogens as much as possible, and basing empiric treatment on the disease being treated and the susceptibility of the predominant pathogens at breakpoints based on pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters (2). The current status of resistance mechanisms found in Haemophilus infl uenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis against the antimicrobial agents recommended for empiric and directed treatment of the diseases caused by these pathogens form the basis of this review.


Streptococcus Pneumoniae Acute Otitis Medium Haemophilus Influenzae Antimicrob Agent Pediatr Infect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael R. Jacobs
    • 1
  1. 1.Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, University Hospitals Case Medical CenterClevelandUSA

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