Hepatocellular Carcinoma Arising in the Non-viral, Non-alcoholic Liver

  • Charles E. WoodallIII
  • Robert C. G. MartinII
  • Kelly M. McMasters
  • Charles R. Scoggins


Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the five most common cancers worldwide and is one of the top three in regard to annual mortality. Greater than 80% occur in either sub-Saharan Africa or East Asia, and most of these cases are attributed to viral hepatitis. Increased public awareness and educational campaigns have led to decreasing incidences in these endemic areas. However, the rate of HCC in a number of areas with traditionally low rates of viral hepatitis, including Australia, the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, has increased significantly. This rising incidence cannot be easily explained by changes in immigration, hepatitis C virus, or ethanol.


HCC risk factors HCC in the non-fibrotic liver Non-cirrhotic hepatoma Fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles E. WoodallIII
    • 1
  • Robert C. G. MartinII
    • 2
  • Kelly M. McMasters
    • 3
  • Charles R. Scoggins
    • 2
  1. 1.Surgical Oncology/Surgical EndoscopyFerrell Duncan Clinic General Surgery, CoxHealthSpringfieldUSA
  2. 2.Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of SurgeryUniversity of Louisville School of MedicineLouisvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA

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