Microwave Ablation and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Robert C. G. Martin


Hepatocellular carcinoma remains one of the most common malignant neoplasms and is responsible for greater than one million deaths per year [1]. Prognosis of HCC is exceedingly poor because of the high malignancy biology, high recurrence, and overall resistance to current therapies [2].


Microwave ablation Hepatocellular cancer 


  1. 1.
    Bosch FX, Ribes J, Cleries R et al (2005) Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Liver Dis 9:191–211, vCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E et al (2008) Cancer statistics, 2008. CA Cancer J Clin 58:71–96CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Adam R, Azoulay D, Castaing D et al (2003) Liver resection as a bridge to transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma on cirrhosis: a reasonable strategy? Ann Surg 238:508–518CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fong Y, Sun RL, Jarnagin W et al (1999) An analysis of 412 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma at a Western center. Ann Surg 229:790–799CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ohmoto K, Miyake I, Tsuduki M et al (1999) Percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology 46:2894–2900PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shibata T, Iimuro Y, Yamamoto Y et al (2002) Small hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison of radio-frequency ablation and percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy. Radiology 223:331–337CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lu MD, Chen JW, Xie XY et al (2001) Hepatocellular carcinoma: US-guided percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy. Radiology 221:167–172CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lu MD, Xu HX, Xie XY et al (2005) Percutaneous microwave and radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma: a retrospective comparative study. J Gastroenterol 40:1054–1060CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goldberg SN, Charboneau JW, Dodd GD, III et al (2003) Image-guided tumor ablation: proposal for standardization of terms and reporting criteria. Radiology 228:335–345CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Diederich CJ (2005) Thermal ablation and high-temperature thermal therapy: overview of technology and clinical implementation. Int J Hyperthermia 21:745–753CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Skinner MG, Iizuka MN, Kolios MC et al (1998) A theoretical comparison of energy sources—microwave, ultrasound and laser–for interstitial thermal therapy. Phys Med Biol 43:3535–3547CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wright AS, Sampson LA, Warner TF et al (2005) Radiofrequency versus microwave ablation in a hepatic porcine model. Radiology 236:132–139CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wright AS, Lee FT, Jr., Mahvi DM (2003) Hepatic microwave ablation with multiple antennae results in synergistically larger zones of coagulation necrosis. Ann Surg Oncol 10:275–283CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tabuse K, Katsumi M, Kobayashi Y et al (1985) Microwave surgery: hepatectomy using a microwave tissue coagulator. World J Surg 9:136–143CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bertram JM, Yang D, Converse MC et al (2006) A review of coaxial-based interstitial antennas for hepatic microwave ablation. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 34:187–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Saitsu H, Yoshida M, Taniwaki S et al (1991) [Laparoscopic coagulo-necrotic therapy using microtase for small hepatocellular carcinoma]. Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi 88:2727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Seki T, Wakabayashi M, Nakagawa T et al (1994) Ultrasonically guided percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy for small hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer 74:817–825CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dong BW, Liang P, Yu XL et al (1998) Sonographically guided microwave coagulation treatment of liver cancer: an experimental and clinical study. AJR Am J Roentgenol 171:449–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Martin RC, Scoggins CR, McMasters KM (2007) Microwave hepatic ablation: initial experience of safety and efficacy. J Surg Oncol 96:481–486CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sato M, Watanabe Y, Ueda S et al (1996) Microwave coagulation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology 110:1507–1514CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Abe T, Shinzawa H, Wakabayashi H et al (2000) Value of laparoscopic microwave coagulation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma in relation to tumor size and location. Endoscopy 32:598–603CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Aramaki M, Kawano K, Ohno T et al (2004) Microwave coagulation therapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology 51:1784–1787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liang P, Wang Y (2007) Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncology 72(Suppl 1):124–131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Murakami R, Yoshimatsu S, Yamashita Y et al (1995) Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: value of percutaneous microwave coagulation. AJR Am J Roentgenol 164:1159–1164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kuang M, Lu MD, Xie XY et al (2007) Liver cancer: increased microwave delivery to ablation zone with cooled-shaft antenna–experimental and clinical studies. Radiology 242:914–924CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Izumi N, Asahina Y, Noguchi O et al (2001) Risk factors for distant recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the liver after complete coagulation by microwave or radiofrequency ablation. Cancer 91:949–956CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yamanaka N, Tanaka T, Oriyama T et al (1996) Microwave coagulonecrotic therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Surg 20, 1076–1081CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liang P, Wang Y (2007) Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncology 72(Suppl 1):124–131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Iannitti DA, Martin RC, Simon CJ et al (2007) Hepatic tumor ablation with clustered microwave antennae: the US Phase II Trial. HPB (Oxford) 9:120–124Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shibata T, Murakami T, Ogata N (2000) Percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy for patients with primary and metastatic hepatic tumors during interruption of hepatic blood flow. Cancer 88:302–311CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Seki T, Tamai T, Nakagawa T et al (2000) Combination therapy with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer 89:1245–1251CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert C. G. Martin
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of SurgeryUniversity of Louisville School of MedicineLouisvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations