Insomnia in Teens

  • John Garcia
Part of the Current Clinical Neurology book series (CCNEU)


This chapter explores the causes for insomnia in teens: delayed sleep phase syndrome, insomnia as a symptom of psychiatric disorders, and insomnia as a symptom of substance abuse. Other forms of insomnia occur in the adolescent population. These include psychophysiologic insomnia, neuro-endocrine/hormonal influences on sleep patterns, which pertain to women’s health, restless legs syndrome, insomnia after traumatic brain injury, medical conditions including hyperthyroidism, and genetic disorders.


Delayed sleep phase syndrome Substance abuse Restless legs syndrome Hyperthyroidism Traumatic brain injury 


  1. 1.
    Schrader H, Bovim G, Sand T (1993) The prevalence of delayed and advanced sleep phase syndromes. J Sleep Res 2(1):51–55CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ancoli-Israel S, Roth T (1999) Characteristics of insomnia in the United States: results of the 1991 national sleep foundation survey. I. Sleep 22 Suppl 2:S347–S353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pandi-Perumal SR, Smits M, Spence W, Srinivasan V, Cardinali DP, Lowe AD, Kayumov L (2007) Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO): a tool for the analysis of circadian phase in human sleep and chronobiological disorders. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 31(1):1–11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Morgenthaler TI, Lee-Chiong T, Alessi C, Friedman L, Aurora RN, Boehlecke B, Brown T, Chesson AL, Jr, Kapur V, Maganti R, Owens J, Pancer J, Swick TJ, Zak R, Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2007) Practice parameters for the clinical evaluation and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders. an American academy of sleep medicine report. Sleep 30(11):1445–1459PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fremont WP (2003) School refusal in children and adolescents. Am Fam Physician 68(8):1555–1560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thapan K, Arendt J, Skene DJ (2001) An action spectrum for melatonin suppression: evidence for a novel non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor system in humans. J Physiol 535(Pt 1):261–267CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wright HR, Lack LC, Kennaway DJ (2004) Differential effects of light wavelength in phase advancing the melatonin rhythm. J Pineal Res 36(2):140–144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Deacon S, Arendt J (1995) Melatonin-induced temperature suppression and its acute phase-shifting effects correlate in a dose-dependent manner in humans. Brain Res 688(1–2):77–85CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dumortier G, Welniarz B, Sauvebois C, Medjdoub H, Friche H, Siad N, Degrassat K (2005) Prescription of psychotropic drugs in pediatry: approved indications and therapeutic perspectives. Encéphale 31(4 Pt 1):477–489CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu X, Buysse DJ (2006) Sleep and youth suicidal behavior: a neglected field. Curr Opin Psychiatry 19(3):288–293CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hall RC, Platt DE, Hall RC (1999) Suicide risk assessment: a review of risk factors for suicide in 100 patients who made severe suicide attempts. evaluation of suicide risk in a time of managed care. Psychosomatics 40(1):18–27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goetting MG, Reijonen J (2007) Pediatric insomnia: a behavioral approach. Prim Care 34(2):427–435; abstract xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Anbar RD, Slothower MP (2006) Hypnosis for treatment of insomnia in school-age children: a retrospective chart review. BMC Pediatr 6:23CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Richter NC (1984) The efficacy of relaxation training with children. J Abnorm Child Psychol 12(2):319–344CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Freedman R, Papsdorf JD (1976) Biofeedback and progressive relaxation treatment of sleep-onset insomnia: a controlled, all-night investigation. Biofeedback Self Regul 1(3):253–271CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nicassio PM, Boylan MB, McCabe TG (1982) Progressive relaxation, EMG biofeedback and biofeedback placebo in the treatment of sleep-onset insomnia. Br J Med Psychol 55(Pt 2):159–166CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shibley HL, Malcolm RJ, Veatch LM (2008) Adolescents with insomnia and substance abuse: consequences and comorbidities. J Psychiatr Pract 14(3):146–153CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kryger M, Roth T, Dement W (2000) Principles and practice of sleep medicine. W.B. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brower KJ, Aldrich MS, Robinson EA, Zucker RA, Greden JF (2001) Insomnia, self-medication, and relapse to alcoholism. Am J Psychiatry 158(3):399–404CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brower KJ (2001) Alcohol’s effects on sleep in alcoholics. Alcohol Res Health 25(2):110–125PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Diagnostic Classification Steering Committee (1990) The international classification of sleep disorders: diagnostic and coding manual. American Sleep Disorders Association, Rochester, MNGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    O’Brien MC, McCoy TP, Rhodes SD, Wagoner A, Wolfson M (2008) Caffeinated cocktails: energy drink consumption, high-risk drinking, and alcohol-related consequences among college students. Acad Emerg Med 15(5):453–460CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Johnson EO, Breslau N (2001) Sleep problems and substance use in adolescence. Drug Alcohol Depend 64(1):1–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Currie SR, Clark S, Rimac S, Malhotra S (2003) Comprehensive assessment of insomnia in recovering alcoholics using daily sleep diaries and ambulatory monitoring. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27(8):1262–1269CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Teplin D, Raz B, Daiter J, Varenbut M, Tyrrell M (2006) Screening for substance use patterns among patients referred for a variety of sleep complaints. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 32(1):111–120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Garcia
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Sleep CenterGillette Children’s HospitalSt. PaulUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics, Minnesota Regional Sleep Disorders CenterUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations