Advertisement

Epidemiology of Insomnia

  • Ritu Grewal
  • Karl Doghramji
Chapter
Part of the Current Clinical Neurology book series (CCNEU)

Abstract

Insomnia is a prevalent complaint and often encountered by health care practitioners. It is costly and can cause significant morbidity if not addressed appropriately. Women and the elderly tend to suffer from insomnia more than other groups of the population. Other risk factors include psychosocial stressors, psychiatric and medical problems, low income, unemployment, excessive environmental noise, not having a life partner, and job-related stressors among others.

Keywords

Prevalence of insomnia Hypnotic use Economic impact Sociodemographic determinants 

References

  1. 1.
    Mahowald MW, Kader G, Schenck CH (1997) Clinical categories of sleep disorders I. Continuum 3(4):35–65Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Young TB (2005) Natural history of chronic insomnia. NIH insomnia abstract. J Clin Sleep Med 1(Suppl):e466–e467Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Association of Sleep Disorders Center (1979) Diagnostic classification of sleep and arousal disorders. Sleep 2:5–122Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    American Psychiatric Association (2000) Sleep disorders. In: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: diagnostic criteria for primary insomnia, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, pp 597–661Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    American Academy of Sleep Medicine (1997) The international classification of sleep disorders, revised. American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Westchester, IllGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    World Health Organization (1992) The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders. World Health Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mellinger GD, Balter MB, Uhlenhuth EH (1985) Insomnia and its treatment. Prevalence and correlates. Arch Gen Psychiatry 42(3):225–232CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ohayon M (1996) Epidemiological study on insomnia in the general population. Sleep 19(3 Suppl):S7–S15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Leger D et al (2000) Prevalence of insomnia in a survey of 12,778 adults in France. J Sleep Res 9(1):35–42CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sutton DA, Moldofsky H, Badley EM (2001) Insomnia and health problems in Canadians. Sleep 24(6):665–670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Simen S et al (1995) Chronification of sleep disorders. Results of a representative survey in West Germany. Nervenarzt 66(9):686–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ishigooka J et al (1999) Epidemiological study on sleep habits and insomnia of new outpatients visiting general hospitals in Japan. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 53(4):515–522CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim K et al (2000) An epidemiological study of insomnia among the Japanese general population. Sleep 23(1):41–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pallesen S et al (2001) Prevalence of insomnia in the adult Norwegian population. Sleep 24(7):771–779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Husby R, Lingjaerde O (1990) Prevalence of reported sleeplessness in northern Norway in relation to sex, age and season. Acta Psychiatr Scand 81(6):542–547CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zeitlhofer J et al (1994) Epidemiology of sleep disorders in Austria. Wien Klin Wochenschr 106(3):86–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ohayon MM, Hong SC (2002) Prevalence of insomnia and associated factors in South Korea. J Psychosom Res 53(1):593–600CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lopez AT, Sanchez EG, Torres FG et al (1995) Habitos y trastornos del dormir en residentes del area metropolitana de Monterrey. Salud Mental 18:14–22Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yeo BK et al (1996) Insomnia in the community. Singapore Med J 37(3):282–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hyyppa M, Kronholm E (1987) How does Finland sleep? Sleeping habits of the Finnish adult population and the rehabilitation of sleep disturbances. Publ Soc Ins Inst ML(68):1–110Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dixon KN, Monroe LJ, Jakim S (1981) Insomniac children. Sleep 4(3):313–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Archbold KH et al (2002) Symptoms of sleep disturbances among children at two general pediatric clinics. J Pediatr 140(1):97–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Neveus T et al (2001) Sleep habits and sleep problems among a community sample of schoolchildren. Acta Paediatr 90(12):1450–1455CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu X et al (2000) Prevalence and correlates of self-reported sleep problems among Chinese adolescents. Sleep 23(1):27–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ohayon MM et al (2000) Prevalence and patterns of problematic sleep among older adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39(12):1549–1556CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Saarenpaa-Heikkila OA et al (1995) Sleep habits and disorders in Finnish schoolchildren. J Sleep Res 4(3):173–182CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tynjala J, Kannas L, Valimaa R (1993) How young Europeans sleep. Health Educ Res 8(1):69–80CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Levy D et al (1986) Sleep patterns and problems in adolescents. J Adolesc Health Care 7(6):386–389CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Price VA et al (1978) Prevalence and correlates of poor sleep among adolescents. Am J Dis Child 132(6):583–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kirmil-Gray K, Eagleston J, Gibson E (1984) Sleep disturbance in adolescents: sleep quality, sleep habits, beliefs about sleep, and daytime functioning. J Youth Adolesc 13:375–384CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rimpela A, Ahlstrom S (1983) Health habits among Finnish youth. National Board of Health, p 71–83Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ohayon MM (2002) Epidemiology of Insomnia: what we know and what we still need to learn. Sleep Med Rev 6(2):97–111CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Klink ME et al (1992) Risk factors associated with complaints of insomnia in a general adult population. Influence of previous complaints of insomnia. Arch Intern Med 152(8):1634–1637CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mitchell ES, Woods NF (1996) Symptom experiences of midlife women: observations from the Seattle Midlife Women’s Health Study. Maturitas 25(1):1–10CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Owens JF, Matthews KA (1998) Sleep disturbance in healthy middle-aged women. Maturitas 30(1):41–50CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Camhi SL et al (2000) Factors affecting sleep disturbances in children and adolescents. Sleep Med 1(2):117–123CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chiu HF et al (1999) Sleep problems in Chinese elderly in Hong Kong. Sleep 22(6):717–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Li RH et al (2002) Gender differences in insomnia – a study in the Hong Kong Chinese population. J Psychosom Res 53(1):601–609CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hajak G (2001) Epidemiology of severe insomnia and its consequences in Germany. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 251(2):49–56CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Foley DJ et al (1999) Incidence and remission of insomnia among elderly adults in a biracial cohort. Sleep 22(Suppl 2):S373–S378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    McGhie A, Russell S (1962) The subjective assessment of normal sleep patterns. J Ment Sci 108:642–654Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chevalier H et al (1999) Evaluation of severe insomnia in the general population: results of a European multinational survey. J Psychopharmacol 13(4 Suppl 1):S21–S24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Janson C et al (2001) Insomnia in men-a 10-year prospective population based study. Sleep 24(4):425–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Morgan K, Clarke D (1997) Risk factors for late-life insomnia in a representative general practice sample. Br J Gen Pract 47(416):166–169PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Foley DJ et al (1999) Incidence and remission of insomnia among elderly adults: an epidemiologic study of 6,800 persons over three years. Sleep 22(Suppl 2):S366–S372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ohayon MM et al (2001) How age and daytime activities are related to insomnia in the general population: consequences for older people. J Am Geriatr Soc 49(4):360–366CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Blazer DG, Hays JC, Foley DJ (1995) Sleep complaints in older adults: a racial comparison. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 50(5):M280–M284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jean-Louis G et al (2001) Ethnic differences in self-reported sleep problems in older adults. Sleep 24(8):926–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ohayon MM et al (2002) Prevalence and consequences of sleep disorders in a shift worker population. J Psychosom Res 53(1):577–583CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Harma M et al (1998) Combined effects of shift work and life-style on the prevalence of insomnia, sleep deprivation and daytime sleepiness. Scand J Work Environ Health 24(4):300–307CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dumont M, Montplaisir J, Infante-Rivard C (1997) Sleep quality of former night-shift workers. Int J Occup Environ Health 3(Suppl 2):S10–S14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Doi Y et al (2000) Prevalence of sleep disturbance and hypnotic medication use in relation to sociodemographic factors in the general Japanese adult population. J Epidemiol 10(2):79–86CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kageyama T et al (1997) A population study on risk factors for insomnia among adult Japanese women: a possible effect of road traffic volume. Sleep 20(11):963–971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Weissman MM et al (1997) The morbidity of insomnia uncomplicated by psychiatric disorders. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 19(4):245–250CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Costa e Silva JA et al (1996) Special report from a symposium held by the World Health Organization and the World Federation of Sleep Research Societies: an overview of insomnias and related disorders – recognition, epidemiology, and rational management. Sleep 19(5):412–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dodge R, Cline MG, Quan SF (1995) The natural history of insomnia and its elationship to respiratory symptoms. Arch Intern Med 155(16):1797–1800CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Katz DA, McHorney CA (1998) Clinical correlates of insomnia in patients with chronic illness. Arch Intern Med 158(10):1099–1107CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ford DE, Kamerow DB (1989) Epidemiologic study of sleep disturbances and psychiatric disorders. An opportunity for prevention? JAMA 262(11):1479–1484CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chang PP et al (1997) Insomnia in young men and subsequent depression. The Johns Hopkins Precursors Study. Am J Epidemiol 146(2):105–114CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mallon L, Broman JE, Hetta J (2000) Relationship between insomnia, depression, and mortality: a 12-year follow-up of older adults in the community. Int Psychogeriatr 12(3):295–306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Leger D et al (2001) SF-36: evaluation of quality of life in severe and mild insomniacs compared with good sleepers. Psychosom Med 63(1):49–55CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hatoum HT et al (1998) Insomnia, health-related quality of life and healthcare resource consumption. A study of managed-care organization enrollees. Pharmacoeconomics 14(6):629–637CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zammit GK et al (1999) Quality of life in people with insomnia. Sleep 22(Suppl 2):S379–S385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hauri PJ (1997) Cognitive deficits in insomnia patients. Acta Neurol Belg 97(2):113–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Espie CA et al (2000) Insomniacs’ attributions: psychometric properties of the dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep scale and the sleep disturbance questionnaire. J Psychosom Res 48(2):141–148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kripke DF et al (2002) Mortality associated with sleep duration and insomnia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59(2):131–136CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rumble R, Morgan K (1992) Hypnotics, sleep, and mortality in elderly people. J Am Geriatr Soc 40:787–791CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mallon L, Broman JE, Hetta J (2002) Sleep complaints predict coronary artery disease mortality in males: a 12-year follow-up study of a middle-aged Swedish population. J Intern Med 251(3):207–216CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Quera-Salva MA et al (1991) Insomnia and use of hypnotics: study of a French population. Sleep 14(5):386–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Asplund R (2000) Sleep and hypnotic use in relation to perceived somatic and mental health among the elderly. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 31(3):199–205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Partinen M, Eskelinen L, Tuomi K (1984) Complaints of insomnia in different occupations. Scand J Work Environ Health 10(6 Spec No):467–469CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Johnson EO et al (1998) Epidemiology of alcohol and medication as aids to sleep in early adulthood. Sleep 21(2):178–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Walsh JK, Schweitzer PK (1999) Ten-year trends in the pharmacological treatment of insomnia. Sleep 22(3):371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Walsh JK, Roehrs T, Roth T (2005) Pharmacologic treatment of primary insomnia. In: Kryger M, Roth T, Dement W (eds) Principles and practice of sleep medicine. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 749–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Stoller MK (1994) Economic effects of insomnia. Clin Ther 16(5):873–897; discussion 854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Leger D, Guilleminault C, Bader G et al (2002) Medical and socioprofessional impact of insomnia. Sleep 25:625–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Walsh JK, Engelhardt CL (1999) The direct economic costs of insomnia in the United States for 1995. Sleep 22(Suppl 2):S386–S393PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ritu Grewal
    • 1
  • Karl Doghramji
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Jefferson Sleep Disorders Center, Thomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Jefferson Sleep Disorders CenterPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations