Advertisement

Biotreatment of Sludge and Reuse

  • Azni Idris
  • Katayon Saed
  • Yung-Tse Hung
Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering book series (HEE, volume 11)

Abstract

Sewage sludge, a by-product of domestic wastewater treatment plant, also known as “biosolids”, is generated in millions of tons each year. While sewage sludge disposal is a worldwide problem, local conditions dictate the adoption of a variety of treatment and reuse methods. Among them, composting has been practiced extensively in Malaysia. This chapter discusses the theory of the process, fundamental factors affecting the process, and the basis of solid state bioconversion technique. Numerous case studies exhibiting the large scale and continuous operation of sewage sludge composting and their utilization are also presented in this chapter.

Keywords

Sewage Sludge Municipal Solid Waste Compost Process Effective Microorganism Sludge Compost 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Zheng GD, Gao D, Chen TB, Luo W (2007) Stabilization of nickel and chromium in sewage sludge during aerobic composting. J Hazard Mater 142:216–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Haug RT (1980) Compost engineering principle and practice. Ann Arbor Publisher, Inc, MichiganGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Haug RT (1993) The practical handbook of compost engineering. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, F1.717 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hughes EG (1980) The composting of municipal wastes. In: Berwick MM (ed) Handbook of organic wastes conversion, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bertoldi M, Vallini G, Pera A, Zucconi F (1985) Technological aspects of composting including modeling and microbiology. In: Gesser JKR (ed) Composting of agricultural and other wastes, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, p 320Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Biddlestone AJ, Gray KR, Day CA (1987) Composting and straw decomposition. In: Forster CF, John Wase DA (eds) Environmental biotechnology, Ellis Horwood Limited, Chichester, pp 137–175Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Diaz LF, Savage GM, Eggerth LL, Golueke CG (1993) Composting and recycling – municipal solid waste, vol 1. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, USAGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gaur AC (1982) Role of mesophilic fungi in composting. Agr Wastes 4(6):453–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mitchell DA, Lonsane BK (1993) Definition, characteristics and potential. In: Doelle HW, Rolz C (eds) Solid substrate cultivation, Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Renner R (2000) Sewage sludge – pros and cons. Environ Sci Technol 34:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lee CJ, Spinosa L, Liu JC (2002) Towards sustainable sludge management. Water 21:22–23Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hettenbach T, Cohen B, Wiles R, Cook K (1998) Dumping sewage sludge on organic farms? why USDA should just say No. EWG policy analysis. Environmental Working Group, April 30, 1998Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    US EPA (1995) Process design manual: land application of sewage sludge and domestic septage, EPA/625/K-95/001, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stan V, Virsta A, Dusa EM., Glavan AM (2009) Waste recycling and compost benefits. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 37(2):9–13Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Biddlestone AJ, Ball D, Gray KR (1981) Composting and urban waste recycling. Academic Press, Inc. Publisher, New York, pp 125–128Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Crawford DL (1986) The role of actinomycetes in the decomposition of lignocellulose. FEMS Symps 34:715–728Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gotaas HB (1956) Composting – sanitary disposal and reclamation of organic wastes. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Golueke CG (1977) Biological reclamation of solid wastes. Rodale Press, Emmau, USA, p 249Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Verdonck O (1998) Compost from organic waste materials as substitute for the usual horticultural substrate. Biol Waste 26:325–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gaur AC (1987) Recycling of organic wastes by improved techniques of composting and other methods. Resour Conserv 13:157–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hassan MA, Idris A, Ariff A, Abdul Karim MI, Abdul Razak AR, Baharum Z (2001). Co-composting of sewage sludges and municipal solid wastes. Research on sludge. Final report. Indah Water Konsortium and Universiti Putra MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Obeng LA, Wright FW (1987) Integrated resource recovery the co-composting of domestic solid and human wastes. World bank technical paper number 57. The World Bank, Washington, DC, pp 1–91Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cannel E, Moo-Young M (1980). Solids state fermentation systems. Process Biochem 15:24–28Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mudgett RE (1986) Solid-state fermentations. In: Demain AL, Solomon HA (eds) Manual of industrial microbiology and biotechnology, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, pp 66–83Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kargi K, Curme JA (1985) Solid fermentation of sweet sorghum to ethanol in a rotary drum fermentor. Biotechnol Bioeng 27:1122–1125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Laukevics JJ, Apsote AF, Viesturs UE, Tangerdy RP (1984) Solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw to fungal potien. Biotechnol Bioeng 26:1465–1474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Grajec W (1987) Production of D-xylanases by thermophilic fungi using different methods of culture. Biotechnol Lett 9:353–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bajracharya R, Mudget RE (1980) Effect on control gas environment in solid substrate fermentations of rice. Biotechnol Bioeng 22:2219–2235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kumar PKR, Lonsane BK (1987) Gibberellic acid by solid state fermentation: consistent and improved yields. Biotechnol Bioeng 30:267–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mitchell DA, Greenfield PE, Doelle HW (1988) Development of a model solid state fermentation system. Biotechnol Tech 2:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hasseltine CW (1972) Biotechnology report. Solid state fermentations. Biotechnol Bioeng 14:517–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Biddlestone AJ, Gray KR (1985) Composting. In: Young MM (ed) Comprehensive biotechnology, vol 4. Pergamon Press, New York, pp 1059–1070Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Moo-Young M, Moreira RA, Tangerdy RP (1983) Principles of solid substrate fermentation. In: Smith JE, Berry DR, Kristiansen B, Arnold E (eds) The filamentous fungi, vol 4. Edward Arnold, London, pp 177–144Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Viesturs UE, Apsite AF, Leukevics JJ, Ose VP, Bekers MJ, Tangerdy RP (1981) Solid-state fermentation of wheat straw with Chaetomium cellulolyticum and Trichoderma lignorum. Biotechnol Bioeng Symp 11:359–369Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tangerdy RP, Murphy VG, Wissler MD (1983) Solid-state fermentation of cellulosic residues. Ann N Y Acad Sci 413:469–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Abdullah AL, Tangerdy RP, Murphy VG (1985) Optimization of solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw. Biotechnol Bioeng 27:20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    IWK-UPM (2002) Utilization of sewage sludge as fertilizer and as potting media. Report on Project 1, Indah Water Konsortium – Universiti Putra Malaysia, May 2002, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Food Act and Regulations (1985) MDC Publishers Printers Sdn, Kuala Lumpur, pp 192–193Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kabbashi NA (2002) Study of culture condition for solid state fermentation of sewage treatment plant sludge to compost. Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hassan AHH (2001) Solid state bioconversion of oil palm empty fruit brunches (EFB) into compost by selected microbes, Master of Science Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zainal BB (2002) Composting of selected organic sludges using rotary drum in comparison to windrow system, Master of Science Thesis, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Abdul Rahman AR (2004) Bioreactor co-composting of sewage sludge and restaurant waste. Master of Science Thesis, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wang LK, Shammas NK, Hung YT (eds) (2009) Advanced Biological Treatment Processes. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 737 ppGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wang LK, Ivanov V, Tay JH, Hung YT (eds) (2010) Environmental Biotechnology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 975 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Azni Idris
    • 1
  • Katayon Saed
    • 2
  • Yung-Tse Hung
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Environmental EngineeringUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSelangorMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSelangorMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringCleveland State UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations