Living Machines

  • Yung-Tse Hung
  • Joseph F. Hawumba
  • Lawrence K. Wang
Part of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering book series (HEE, volume 11)


Ecological studies have revealed that nature has an in-built system to restore itself, thereby sustaining its continuity. In other words, natural ecosystems can act as “Living Machines” in keeping the ecosystems habitable. The biological communities – microbes, plants, and animals – serve as the driving force of several living technological innovations – constructed wetlands, Lake Restores, Eco-Restorers, and Reedbeds. These ecologically based technologies are suitable for environment restoration or mitigation, food production through waste conversions, as well as architecture and landscape design.


Chemical Oxygen Demand Total Suspended Solid Biochemical Oxygen Demand Sequence Batch Reactor Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yung-Tse Hung
    • 1
  • Joseph F. Hawumba
    • 2
  • Lawrence K. Wang
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringCleveland State UniversityClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Biochemistry DepartmentMakerere UniversityKampalaUganda
  3. 3.Lenox Institute of Water TechnologyLenoxUSA
  4. 4.Krofta Engineering CorporationLenoxUSA
  5. 5.Zorex CorporationNewtonvilleUSA

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