Total Treatment of Black and Grey Water for Rural Communities

  • Avanish K. Panikkar
  • Susan A. Okalebo
  • Steven J. Riley
  • Surendra P. Shrestha
  • Yung-Tse Hung
Part of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering book series (HEE, volume 11)


Decentralized or on-site treatment systems for domestic waste and wastewater treatment can be the answer to many of the world’s environmental health problems. Poor or remote communities need technologies developed for the application, and an economically viable whole-of-waste approach is necessary. Vermicomposting offers a natural option to treat domestic waste and wastewater into reusable products. The extent of treatment can be incorporated into the design, providing flexibility and scalability required for the user community.


Chemical Oxygen Demand Total Dissolve Solid Total Suspend Solid Biochemical Oxygen Demand Faecal Coliform 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Avanish K. Panikkar
    • 1
  • Susan A. Okalebo
    • 2
  • Steven J. Riley
    • 2
  • Surendra P. Shrestha
    • 2
  • Yung-Tse Hung
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Environment and PlanningSMEC Australia LtdNorth SydneyAustralia
  2. 2.School of Engineering and Industrial DesignThe University of Western SydneyPenrith South DCAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringCleveland State UniversityClevelandUSA

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