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Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis

  • Koichi Hagiwara
  • Takeshi Johkoh
  • Teruo Tachibana
Chapter
Part of the Respiratory Medicine book series (RM)

Abstract

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM: OMIM265100) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the intra-alveolar formation of microliths that are mainly composed of calcium phosphate. Microliths are found in about 80% of the alveoli. They grow very slowly and finally occupy most of the alveolar space. Mild-to-moderate chronic inflammation and fibrosis are observed mainly in the interstitium asymptomatic diagnosed of their diseases in their childhood where the disease is often discovered incidentally on a chest xray taken for a different purpose. The disease usually takes a chronic, slowly progressive course. Patients are generally free of symptoms until middle age, when respiratory insufficiency gradually develops. Many patients die of respiratory failure. In 2006, two independent researchers reported that homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the SLC34A2 gene is present in PAM patients. SLC34A2 encodes a type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate transporter that is expressed in type II alveolar cells. Loss of phosphate transporter function in alveolar type II cells is considered to be the cause of PAM.

Keywords

diffuse pulmonary shadow phosphorus transporter intra-alveolar microliths autosomal recessive inheritance 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koichi Hagiwara
    • 1
  • Takeshi Johkoh
    • 2
  • Teruo Tachibana
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Respiratory MedicineSaitama Medical SchoolSaitamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyOsaka University HospitalOsakaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Internal MedicineAizenbashi HospitalOsakaJapan

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