Pediatric EEG Abnormalities

  • James J. RivielloJr.


EEG is an important tool in pediatric neurology and EEG abnormalities occur in many different disorders. EEG abnormalities are nonspecific and do not make a specific diagnosis. However, the EEG is especially useful in the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, classification, and management of seizures and epileptic syndromes. Once the diagnosis of epilepsy is established, specific EEG patterns help to define specific epileptic syndromes.

Key Words

EEG EEG and epileptic syndromes pediatric EEG pediatric EEG abnormalities pediatric EEG patterns 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Suggested Reading

  1. @Refs:Alvarez N, Lombroso CT, Medina C, Cantlon B. Paroxysmal spike and wave activity in drowsiness in young children: its relationship to febrile convulsions. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1983;56: 406–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aicardi J, Chevrie JJ. Atypical benign partial epilepsy of childhood. Dev Med Child Neurol 1982;24: 281–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asconape J, Penry JK. Some clinical and EEG aspects of benign juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: Epilepsia 1984;25: 108–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Astradsson A, Olafsson E, Ludvigsson P, Bjorgvinsson H, Hauser WA. Rolandic epilepsy: an incidence study in Iceland. Epilepsia 1998;39: 884–886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Camfield CS, Camfield PR, Sadler M, et al. Paroxysmal eyelid movements: a confusing feature of generalized photosensitive epilepsy. Neurology 2004;63: 40–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cavazzuti GB, Cappella L, Nalin A. Longitudinal study of epileptiform EEG patterns in normal children. Epilepsia 1980;21: 43–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Delgado-Escueta AV, Enrile-Bacsal F. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy of Janz. Neurology 1984;34: 285–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Guilhoto LMFF, Morrell F. Electrophysiological differences between Landau-Kleffner Syndrome and other conditions showing the CSWS electrical pattern. Epilepsia 1994;35(Suppl 8): 126.Google Scholar
  9. Hahn JS, Monyer H, Tharp BR. Interburst interval measurements in the EEGs of premature infants with normal neurological outcome. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1989;73: 410–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hirtz D, Ashwal S, Berg A etal. Practice parameter: evaluating a first nonfebrile seizure in children: report of the quality standards subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology, The Child Neurology Society, and The American Epilepsy Society. Neurology 2000;55: 616–623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Holmes GL, McKeever M, Adamson M. Absence seizures in children: clinical and electroencephalographic features. Ann Neurol 1987;21: 268–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hrachovy RA, Frost JD Jr, Kellaway P. Hypsarrhythmia: variations on the theme. Epilepsia 1984;25: 317–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kellaway P. The incidence, significance, and natural history of spike foci in children. In: Current Clinical Neurophysiology. Update on EEG and Evoked Potentials (Henry CE, ed). Elsevier/North Holland, New York, NY, 1980, pp. 151–175.Google Scholar
  14. Kotagal P. Multifocal independent Spike syndrome: relationship to hypsarrhythmia and the slow spike-wave (Lennox-Gastaut) syndrome. Clin Electroencephalogr 1995;26: 23–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kramer U, Sue WC, Mikati MA. Hypsarrhythmia: frequency of variant patterns and correlation with etiology and outcome. Neurology 1997;48: 197–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Lerman P. Benign partial epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes. Epileptic syndromes in infancy, childhood and adolescence, 2nd ed. (Roger J, Bureau M, Dravet C, et al., eds). John Libbey and Company, London, UK 1992, pp. 189–200.Google Scholar
  17. Legarda S, Jayakar P, Duchowny M, Alvarez L, Resnick T. Benign rolandic epilepsy: high central and low central subgroups. Epilepsia 1994;35: 1125–1129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lerman P, Kivity S. Benign focal epilepsy of childhood. A follow-up study of 100 recovered patients. Arch Neurol 1975;23: 261–264.Google Scholar
  19. Lewis DW, Ashwal S, Dahl G, et al. The Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology; The Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Practice parameter: evaluation of children and adolescents with recurrent headaches: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology 2002;59: 490–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lombroso CT. Sylvian seizures and mid temporal spike foci in children. Arch Neurol 1967;17: 52 59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Lum LM, Connolly MB, Farrell K, Wong PK. Hyperventilation-induced high-amplitude rhythmic slowing with altered awareness: a video-EEG comparison with absence seizures. Epilepsia 2002;43: 1372–1378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Massa R, de Saint Martin A, Carcangiu R, et al. EEG criteria predictive of a complicated evolution in idiopathic rolandic epilepsy. Neurology 2001;57: 1071–1079.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Mizrahi EM, Kellaway P. Characterization and classification of neonatal seizures. Neurology 1987;37: 1837–1844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Niedermeyer E. Primary (idiopathic) generalized epilepsy and underlying mechanisms. Clin Electroencephalogr 1996;27: 1–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Panayiotopoulos CP Benign childhood epileptic syndromes with occipital spikes: new classification proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy. J Child Neurol 2000;15: 548–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Penry JK, Porter RJ, Dreifuss RE. Simultaneous recording of absence seizures with video tape and electroencephalography. A study of 374 seizures in 48 patients. Brain 1975;98: 427–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Proposal for Revised Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes, Epilepsia 1989;30: 389–399.Google Scholar
  28. Practice parameter: long-term treatment of the child with simple febrile seizures. American Academy pf Pediatrics. Committee on Quality Improvement, Subcommittee on Febrile Seizures. Pediatrics 1999;103: 1307–1309.Google Scholar
  29. Richer LP, Shevell MI, Rosenblatt BR. Epileptiform abnormalities in children with attention-deficithyperactivity disorder. Pediatr Neurol 2002;26: 125–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rose AL, Lombroso CT. A study of clinical, pathological, and electroencephalographic features in 137 full-term babies with a long-term follow-up. Pediatrics 1970;45: 404 425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Volpe JJ. Neurology of the Newborn, 3rd ed. WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1995, pp. 172–207.Google Scholar
  32. Wirrell EC, Camfield PR, Gordon KE, Dooley JM, Camfield CS. Benign rolandic epilepsy: atypical features are very common. J Child Neurol 1995;10: 455–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • James J. RivielloJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Children’s HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBoston

Personalised recommendations