Cardiac Drugs During Pregnancy and Lactation

Part of the Contemporary Cardiology book series (CONCARD)


Most cardiovascular agents (like all other drugs) must be avoided in the first trimester of pregnancy because they may produce congenital malformations, especially from the 3rd to the 1 lth week of pregnancy.


Breast Milk Pulmonary Edema Magnesium Sulfate Mitral Stenosis Antiarrhythmic Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Redman GWG, Beillin LJ, Bonnar J, et al. Fetal outcome in trial of anti-hypertensive treatment in pregnancy. Lancet 1976;2:753.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cockburn J, Moar VA, Ounsted M, et al. Final report of the study on hypertension during pregnancy: The effects of specific treatment on the growth and development of the children. Lancet 1982;1:647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gallery EDM, Saunders DM, Hunyor SN, et al. Randomized comparison of methyldopa and oxprenolol for the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. BMJ 1997;1:1591.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reynolds B, Butters L, Evans J, et al. The first year of life after atenolol in pregnancy associated hypertension. Arch Dis Child 1984;59:1061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Olofsson P, Montan S, Sartor G, et al. Effects of beta1-adrenergic blockade in the treatment of hypertension during pregnancy in diabetic women. Acta Med Scand 1986;220:321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rubin PC, Butters L, Clark DM, et al. Placebo-controlled trial of atenolol in treatment of pregnancyassociated hypertension. Lancet 1983;1:431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Churchill D, Beevers DG. Hypertension in pregnancy. BMJ Books 1999;70–77.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Clarke JA, Zimmerman HF, Tanner LA. Labetalol hepatoxicity. Ann Intern Med 1990;l13:210.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lindheimer MD, Katz AI Hypertension in pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1985;313:675.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Patterson-Brown S, Robson SC, Redfern N, et al. Hydralazine boluses for the treatment of severe hypertension. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1994;101:409.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Collins R, Yusuf S, Peto R. Overview of randomized trials of diuretics in pregnancy. BMJ 1985;290:17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Walters BNJ, Redman GWG. Treatment of severe pregnancy-associated hypertension with calcium antagonist nifedipine. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1984;91:330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Saunders K, Hammersley V. Magnesium for eclampsia. Lancet 1995;346:788.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Al-Kasab S, Sabag T, Al-Zaibag M, et al. Beta-adrenergic receptor blockage in the management of pregnant women with mitral stenosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 199;0163:37.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Narasimtian C, Joseph G, Singh TC. Propranolol for pulmonary edema in mitral stenosis. Int J Cardiol 1994;44:178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Frishman WH, Chesner M. Use of beta adrenergic blocking agents in pregnancy. In: Maternal and Fetal Disease, 2nd ed. New York, Alan R. Liss, 1990, p 351.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rotmensch HH, Elkayam Y, Frishman W. Antiarrhythmic drug therapy during pregnancy. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:47.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rogers MC, Willerson JT, Goldblatt A, et al. Serum digoxin concentrate in the human fetus, neonate and infant. N Engl J Med 1972;287:1010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schumann JL, Locke RV. Transplacental neonatal digitalis intoxication. Am J Cardiol 1960;6:834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kraus GW, Marchese JR, Yen SS. Prophylactic use of hydrochlorothiazide in pregnancy. JAMA 1966; 198:128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Harrison JK, Greefield RA, Warton JM. Termination of acute supraventricular tachycardia by adenosine during pregnancy. Am Heart J 1992;123:1386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    McKenna WJ, Harris L, Roland E, et al. Amiodarone therapy during pregnancy. Am J Cardiol 1983;51: 1231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Robson DJ, Raj MVJ, Story GCA, et al. Use of amiodarone during pregnancy. Postgrad Med J 1985; 61:75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Khan M Gabriel. Heart Disease, Diagnosis and Therapy. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1996.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hill LM, Malkasian GD. The use of quinidine sulphate throughout pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1979;54: 366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    White WB. Management of hypertension during lactation. Hypertension 1984;6:297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Riant P, Urein S, Albergres E, et al. High plasma protein binding as a parameter in the selection of betablockers for lactating women. Biochem Pharmacol 1986;24:4579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schmimmel MS, Eidelman Al, Wilschanski MA, et al. Toxic effects of atenolol consumed during breastfeeding. J Pediatr 1989;114:476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Committee on Drugs, American Academy of Pediatrics. The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics 1994;93:137.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Barnett DV, Hudson BA, McBurney A. Disopyramide and its N-monodesalkylmetabolite in breastmilk. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1982; 14:310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zeisler JA, Gaarder TD, Demesquita S A. Lidocaine excretion in breast milk. Drug In tell Clin Pharm 1986; 20:691.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Koren G, Pastuszak A, Ito F. Drugs in pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Ramin SM, Gilstrap III LC. Pregnancy chronichypertension. In: Willansky S, Willerson JT (eds.). Heart disease in women. Philadelphia, Churchill Livingstone, 2002, pp. 471–474.Google Scholar
  2. Witlin AG, Belfort M. Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. In: Willansky S, Willerson JT (eds.). Heart disease in women. Philadelphia, Churchill Livingstone, 2002, p. 474.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2007

Personalised recommendations