Management of Heart Failure
The world faces an epidemic of heart failure. The plague of HF is common in developed and in developing countries.
Although treatment strategies have improved considerably over the past decade, improvement in outcomes remain modest and the incidence of HF is increasing. Some of this increase is owing to an aging population in all countries.
In the United States about 5 million individuals have HF. In addition, more than half a million patients are diagnosed with a first episode of HF each year, and approximately 80% of these are over age 65.
In the United States, HF causes more than 300,000 deaths annually (1) over the past 10 yr hospitalizations for HF have risen from approx 550,000 to approx 900,000 (2). The cost worldwide is astronomic: in the United States more Medicare dollars are spent on the management of HF than for any other diagnosis (3) and this cost is estimated to be $28 billion annually.
KeywordsHeart Failure Constrictive Pericarditis Isosorbide Dinitrate Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia Severe Chronic Heart Failure
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