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Altered Renal Microvascular Function in Early Diabetes

  • Pamela K. Carmines
  • Joseph P. Bast
  • Naohito Ishii
Part of the Contemporary Diabetes book series (CDI)

Abstract

The early stage of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by glomerular hyperfiltration that arises as the result of preglomerular (primarily afferent arteriolar) vasodilation. Although hyperglycemia is the trigger for this process, the mechanism linking hyperglycemia to reduced afferent arteriolar tone remains an area of active debate. It is well established that diabetic hyperglycemia provokes a condition of oxidative stress in many organs including the kidney. In this chapter, we consider the possible role of oxidative stress in producing a defect in afferent arteriolar electromechanical coupling that involves K+ channel activation, membrane hyperpolarization, and a consequent decrease in Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated channels. As voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx is a primary determinant of afferent (but not efferent) arteriolar tone and vasoconstrictor responsiveness, this scenario offers a potential mechanism whereby hyperglycemia results in the preglomerular vasodilation that underlies diabetic hyperfiltration.

Keywords

Physiol Heart Circ Afferent Arteriolar Tubuloglomerular Feedback Early Diabetes Arteriolar Tone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pamela K. Carmines
    • 1
  • Joseph P. Bast
    • 2
  • Naohito Ishii
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Cellular and Integrative PhysiologyUniversity of Nebraska College of MedicineOmaha
  2. 2.Department of MedicineLoyola University Stritch School of MedicineChicago
  3. 3.Department of Hematological InformaticsKitasato University School of Allied Health SciencesKanagawaJapan

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