Advertisement

Restless Legs Syndrome in Pregnancy

  • Keith J. Nagle
Chapter
Part of the Current Clinical Neurology book series (CCNEU)

Abstract

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is characterized by limb akathisia that is maximal in the evening while at rest and transiently relieved by movement. The prevalence and severity of RLS increase with age. Women older than 65 have an RLS prevalence of 19%, whereas in nonpregnant women younger than 30 years of age it is only 5% (1). However, gestational RLS (gRLS) is strikingly common, with nearly 25% of pregnant women affected (see below). The association of RLS with pregnancy has been noted since the term was first coined by Ekbom in 1945. RLS is a clinical diagnosis. Its four cardinal clinical features were reviewed in Chapter 8. Further details regarding diagnosis are well described by the International RLS Study Group (2,3)

Keywords

Folate Supplementation Sleep Bruxism Periodic Limb Movement Disorder Poor Sleep Hygiene Gravid State 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Berger, K., J. Luedemann, C. Trenkwalder, U. John, and C. Kessler, Sex and the risk of restless legs syndrome in the general population. Arch Intern Med, 2004;164(2):196–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allen, R.P., E. Mignot, B. Ripley, S. Nishino, and C.J. Earley, Increased CSF hypocretin-1 (orexin-A) in restless legs syndrome. Neurology, 2002;59(4):639–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Walters, A.S., Toward a better definition of the restless legs syndrome. The International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Mov Disord, 1995;10(5):634–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chesson, A.L., Jr., M. Wise, D. Davila, et al., Practice parameters for the treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Report. Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Sleep, 1999;22(7):961–968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Suzuki, K., T. Ohida, T. Sove, et al., The prevalence of restless legs syndrome among pregnant women in Japan and the relationship between restless legs syndrome and sleep problems. Sleep, 2003;6(6):673–677.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lavigne, G.J. and J.Y. Montplaisir, Restless legs syndrome and sleep bruxism: prevalence and association among Canadians. Sleep, 1994;17(8):739–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Manconi, M. and L. Ferini-Strambi, Restless legs syndrome among pregnant women. Sleep, 2004;27(2):350–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goodman, J.D., C. Brodie, and G.A. Ayida, Restless leg syndrome in pregnancy. BMJ, 1988;297(6656):1101–1102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lee, K.A., M.E. Zaffke, and K. Baratte-Beebe, Restless legs syndrome and sleep disturbance during pregnancy: the role of folate and iron. J Womens Health Gend Based Med, 2001;10(4):335–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Manconi, M., V. Govoni, A. De Vito, et al., Restless legs syndrome and pregnancy. Neurology, 2004;63(6):1065–1069.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Winkelmann, J., T.C. Wetter, V. Collado-Seidel, et al., Clinical characteristics and frequency of the hereditary restless legs syndrome in a population of 300 patients. Sleep, 2000;23(5):597–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Earley, C.J., R.P. Allen, J.L. Beard, and J.R. Connor, Insight into the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome. J Neurosci Res, 2000;62(5):623–628.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hening, W.A., R.P. Allen, C.J. Earley, D.L. Picchietti, and M. Silber, An update on the dopaminergic treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder. Sleep, 2004;27(3):560–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hening, W.A., Treatment of restless legs syndrome. Neurol Rev, 2005;2(Suppl):11–17.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Manconi, M., V. Govoni, A. De Vito, et al., Pregnancy as a risk factor for restless legs syndrome. Sleep Med, 2004;5(3):305–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pien, G.W. and R.J. Schwab, Sleep disorders during pregnancy. Sleep, 2004;27(7):1405–1417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Montplaisir, J., S. Boucher, G. Poirier, G. Lavigne, O. Lapierre, and P. Lesperance, Clinical, polysomnographic, and genetic characteristics of restless legs syndrome: a study of 133 patients diagnosed with new standard criteria. Mov Disord, 1997;12(1):61–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Earley, C.J., Clinical practice. Restless legs syndrome. N Engl J Med, 2003;348 (21):2103–2109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Botez, M.I. and B. Lambert, Folate deficiency and restless-legs syndrome in pregnancy. N Engl J Med, 1977;297(12):670.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keith J. Nagle
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Vermont Regional Sleep enterUniversity of Vermont College of MedicineBurlington

Personalised recommendations