Prosthetics and Orthotics

  • Heikki Uustal


More than 100,000 major lower limb amputations occur annually in the United States, and most are the result of dysvascular disease. There are more than 500,000 amputee survivors currently in the United States. There are at least 10 times more lower extremity amputations than there are upper extremity amputations. The primary cause of lower limb amputation in the age group older than 50 years is diabetes and vascular disease. The primary cause of lower limb amputation in the age group younger than 50 years is trauma. The primary cause of upper limb amputation is also trauma. The distribution and relative energy costs for lower limb amputation are outlined in Table 1.


Residual Limb Lower Limb Amputation Terminal Device Myoelectric Control Transtibial Amputation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Key References and Suggested Additional Reading

  1. Braddom RL, ed. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2000:263–352.Google Scholar
  2. Cuccurullo SJ ed. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Board Review. New York: Demos Medical Publishing, 2004:409–487.Google Scholar
  3. Delisa JA, ed. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Principles and Practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins, 2005:1325–1391.Google Scholar
  4. Meier RH, Atkins DJ, eds. Functional Restoration of Adults and Children With Upper Extremity Amputation. New York: Demos Medical Publishing, 2004:159–287.Google Scholar
  5. Seymour R, ed. Prosthetics and Orthotics: Lower Limb and Spine. Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins, 2002.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heikki Uustal
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Prosthetic and Orthotic TeamJFK-Johnson Rehabilitation InstituteEdison
  2. 2.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationUMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical SchoolPiscataway

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