Advertisement

Abstract

Strokes (also called cerebrovascular accidents) occur suddenly and are clinically defined as a focal vascular lesion, which causes an abrupt onset of a neurological deficit that lasts longer than 24 hours. The deficit depends on the area of brain affected. In a transient ischemic attack (TIA), the neurological deficits last less than 24 hours but are usually 5 to 15 minutes.

Keywords

Ischemic Stroke Acute Stroke Acute Ischemic Stroke Transient Ischemic Attack Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Key References and Suggested Additional Reading

  1. Organized inpatient (stroke unit) care for stroke, Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002; 1: CD000197.Google Scholar
  2. Adams HP, Jr, Adams RJ, Brott T, et al. Guidelines for the early management of patients with ischemic stroke: a scientific statement from the Stroke Council of the American Stroke Association. Stroke 2003; 34:1056–1083.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams H, Adams R, Del Zoppo G, Goldstein LB. Guidelines for the early management of patients with ischemic stroke: 2005 guidelines update a scientific statement from the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association/ American Stroke Association. Stroke 2005; 36:916–923.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2005 Update.http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=1928. American Heart Association. Last accessed April 24, 2005.
  5. Barnett HJ, Taylor DW, Eliasziw M, et al. Benefit of carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic moderate or severe stenosis. North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 1415–1425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baron JC, Cohen LG, Cramer SC, et al. Neuroimaging in stroke recovery: a position paper from the First International Workshop on Neuroimaging and Stroke Recovery. Cerebrovasc Dis 2004; 18: 260–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baron JC, Warach S. Imaging. Stroke 2005; 36: 196–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bartels MN. Pathophysiology and medical management of stroke, In: Gillen G, Burkhardt A, eds, Stroke Rehabilitation: A Function-Based Approach, 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby. 2004, pp. 1–30.Google Scholar
  9. Bogey RA, Geis CC, Bryant PR, Moroz A, O’Neill BJ. Stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. 3. Stroke: rehabilitation management. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85(Suppl 1):S15–S20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Broderick JP, Adams HP, Jr, Barsan W, et al. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a statement for healthcare professionals from a special writing group of the Stroke Council, American Heart Association. Stroke 1999; 30:905–915.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Glanz M, Klawansky S, Stason W, Berkey C, Chalmers TC. Functional electrostimulation in poststroke rehabilitation: a meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996; 77:549–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gordon NF, Gulanick M, Costa F, et al. Physical activity and exercise recommendations for stroke survivors: an American Heart Association scientific statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Subcommittee on Exercise, Cardiac Rehabilitation, and Prevention; the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism; and the Stroke Council. Stroke 2004; 35:1230–1240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gresham GE, Alexander D, Bishop DS, et al. American Heart Association Prevention Conference. IV. Prevention and Rehabilitation of Stroke. Rehabilitation. Stroke 1997; 28: 1522–1526.Google Scholar
  14. Ingall TJ, O’Fallon WM, Asplund K, et al. Findings from the reanalysis of the NINDS tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke treatment trial. Stroke 2004; 35:2418–2424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kumral E, Bayulkem G, Evyapan D, Yunten N. Spectrum of anterior cerebral artery territory infarction: clinical and MRI findings. Eur J Neurol 2002; 9:615–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lindsay KW, Bone I. Neurology and Neurosurgery Illustrated, 4th ed, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2004.Google Scholar
  17. Lo EH, Moskowitz MA, Jacobs TP. Exciting, radical, suicidal: how brain cells die after stroke. Stroke 2005; 36:189–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Markus HS. Current treatments in neurology: Stroke J Neurol 2005; 252:260–267.Google Scholar
  19. Mayberg MR, Batjer HH, Dacey R, et al. Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A statement for healthcare professionals from a special writing group of the Stroke Council, American Heart Association. Stroke 1994; 25:2315–2328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Mohr JP, Gautier JC. Ischemic stroke. In: Mohr JP, Gautier JC,eds, Guide to Clinical Neurology. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1995, pp. 543–593.Google Scholar
  21. Moroz A, Bogey RA, Bryant PR, Geis CC, O’Neill BJ. Stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. 2. Stroke: comorbidities and complications. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85(Suppl 1):S11–S14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 1995; 333:1581–1587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Stroke Information Page. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/stroke/stroke.htm. Last accessed April 24, 2005.
  24. O’Neill BJ, Geis CC, Bogey RA, Moroz A, Bryant PR. Stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. 1. Acute stroke evaluation, management, risks, prevention, and prognosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85(Suppl 1):S3–S10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Parent A, Carpenter MB. Carpenter’s Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1995.Google Scholar
  26. Rickards H. Depression in neurological disorders: Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005; 76(Suppl 1):148–152.Google Scholar
  27. Schwamm LH, Pancioli A, Acker JE, III, et al. Recommendations for the establishment of stroke systems of care: recommendations from the American Stroke Association’s Task Force on the Development of Stroke Systems. Stroke 2005; 36:690–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Smith WS, Johnston SC, Easton JD. Part 15. Neurologic Disorders, Section 2. Diseases of the Central Nervous System. In: Kasper, D. L., Braunwald E., Fauci A. S., et al, eds.} Cerebrovascular Diseases. Harrison’s Online, McGraw-Hill. http://www.accessmedicine.com Last accessed March 27, 2005.
  29. Teasell R. Stroke recovery and rehabilitation. Stroke 2003; 34:365–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Teasell RW, Kalra L. What’s new in stroke rehabilitation. Stroke 2004; 35:383–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Teasell RW, Kalra L. What’s new in stroke rehabilitation: back to basics. Stroke 2005; 36:215–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. University of Massachusetts Medical School and the American Stroke Association. http://www.umassmed.edu/strokestop/. 2003, Last accessed April 24, 2005.
  33. Veterans Health Administration, DoD. VA/DoD clinical practice guideline for the management of stroke rehabilitation in the primary care setting.http://www.guideline.gov/summary/summary.aspx?view_id=1&doc_id=3846. Washington, DC: Department of Veteran Affairs, 2003. Last accessed April 24, 2005.Google Scholar
  34. Victor RD, Ropper AH. Principles of Neurology, 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brenda S. Mallory
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation MedicineColumbia University College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew York

Personalised recommendations