Advertisement

Miscellaneous Vector-Borne Diseases

  • Jerome Goddard
Part of the Infectious Disease book series (ID)

Abstract

Chagas’ disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is one of the most important arthropod-borne diseases in the Western Hemisphere. It mostly occurs in Mexico and Central and South America (Fig. 1), but at least two indigenous cases have been reported in the United States (1). At present, some 16–18 million people are estimated to be infected, with 90–100 million people at risk (2) Often being a long, chronic, and debilitating disease, Chagas’ causes tremendous economic losses. The economic loss for South America alone owing to early mortality and disability in economically most productive young adults currently amounts to over 8 billion dollars (3). Chagas’ disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan that occurs in humans as a hemoflagellate and as an intracellular parasite without an external flagellum. Vectors of Chagas’ disease are hemipteran insects (the true bugs) in the family Reduviidae, subfamily Triatominae. They are commonly called “kissing bugs” because of the nasty habit of taking a bloodmeal from around the lips of a sleeping victim. (However, this is an overgeneralization; the bugs will bite on exposed skin just about anywhere on the body.) Chagas’ disease has both acute and chronic forms, but is perhaps best known for its chronic sequelae, including myocardial damage with cardiac dilatation, arrhythmias and major conduction abnormalities, and digestive tract involvement, such as megaesophagus and megacolon (4).

Keywords

Head Louse Scrub Typhus Body Louse Filarial Worm Relapse Fever 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Schiffler RJ, Mansur GP, Navin TR, Limpakarnjanarat K. Indigenous Chagas’ disease in California. JAMA 1984; 251: 2983–2984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schofield CJ, Dolling WR. Bedbugs and kissing-bugs. In: Lane RP, Crosskey RW, eds. Medical Insects and Arachnids. Chapman and Hall, London, 1993, pp. 483–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moncayo A. Progress towards the elimination of Chagas’ disease in Latin America. World Health Stat Q 1997; 50: 195–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Benenson AS. Control of Communicable Diseases Manual. 16th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington DC, 1995.Google Scholar
  5. 4a.
    Infections in Medicine, 1999;16:173.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    Markell EK, Voge M, John DT. Medical Parasitology. 7th ed. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1992.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    Cardoni RL. Inflammatory response to acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Medicina (B Aires) 1997; 57: 227–234.Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    Ribeiro AL, Rocha MO. Indeterminate form of Chagas’ disease: considerations about diagnosis and prognosis. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 1998; 31: 301–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    Carriazo CS, Sembaj A, Aguerri AM, et al. Polymerase chain reaction procedure to detect Trypanosoma cruzi in blood samples from chronic chagasic patients. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1998; 30: 183–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 9.
    Harwood RF, James MT. Entomology in Human and Animal Health. 7th ed. Macmillan, New York, 1979.Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    Guzman-Bracho C, Lahuerta S, Velasco-Castrejon O. Chagas’ disease: First congenital case report. Arch Med Res, 1998; 29: 195–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 11.
    Schettino PMS, Arteaga IDH, Berrueta TU. Chagas’ disease in Mexico. Parasitol Today 1988; 4: 348–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 12.
    Zulantay I, Apt W, Rodriguez J, Venegas J, Sanchez G. Serologic evaluation of treatment of chronic Chagas’ disease with allopurinol and itraconazole. Rev Med Chil 1998; 126: 265–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    Kirchhoff LV. Trypanosoma species: biology of trypanosomes, in Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R (eds): Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 4th edition. Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1995, pp. 2442–2449.Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    Gubler DJ. Resurgent vector-borne diseases as a global health problem. Emerg Infect Dis 1998; 4: 442–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 15.
    Dumas M, Bouteille B. Current status of trypanosomiasis. Med Trop (Mars) 1997; 57 (3 Suppl.): 65–69.Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    Crosskey RW. Blackflies. In: Lane RP, Crosskey RW, eds. Medical Insects and Arachnids. Chapman and Hall, London, 1996, pp. 241–287.Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Abiose A. Onchocercal eye disease and the impact of Mectizan treatment. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1998; 92 (Suppl 1): 11–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    Molyneux DH. Vector-borne parasitic diseases—an overview of recent changes. Intern J Parasitol 1998; 28: 927–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    Varma MGR. Ticks and mites. In: Lane RP, Crosskey RW, eds. Medical Insects and Arachnids. Chapman and Hall, London, 1993, pp. 597–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    Cushing EC. History of Entomology in World War II. Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, 1957.Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    Gormley TS. A diagnosis of scrub typhus. Navy Medicine, Nov-December (1996) Issue.Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    Pradutkanchana J, Silpapojakul K, Paxton H, Pradutkanchana S, Kelly DJ, Strickman D. Comparative evaluation of four diagnostic tests for scrub typhus in Thailand. Trans Royal Soc Trop Med Hyg 1997; 91: 425–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Watt G, Chouriyagune C, Ruangweerayud R, et al. Scrub typhus infections poorly responsive to antibiotics in northern Thailand. Lancet 1996; 348: 86–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Raoult D, Ndihokubwayo JB, Tissot-Dupont H, et al. Outbreak of epidemic typhus associated with trench fever in Burundi. Lancet 1998; 352: 353–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Jackson LA, Spach DH. Emergence of Bartonella quintana infection among homeless persons. Emerg Infect Dis 1996; 2: 141–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jerome Goddard
    • 1
  1. 1.Mississippi Department of HealthUniversity of Mississippi Medical CenterJacksonUSA

Personalised recommendations