Sand Fly-Transmitted Diseases

  • Jerome Goddard
Part of the Infectious Disease book series (ID)


Sand flies are tiny gnats (Fig.1) that breed in dark, moist areas with plenty of available organic matter, which serves as food for the larvae. Examples of breeding sites include hollow trees, animal burrows, and under dead leaves. Female sand flies have piercing mouthparts and are bloodsuckers. Males take moisture from any available source and are even said to suck human sweat. After a blood meal, the female scatters between 30 and 70 eggs in the potential breeding site; they hatch about 1–2 wk later. There are four larval stages, with each stage consuming decaying organic matter and perhaps microorganisms. The pupal stage is inactive and emergence occurs in 5–10 d. Adults seek out cool, moist places to rest, such as caves, cracks in rocks, or tree holes. At night they come out to feed. Some species prefer to feed on reptiles, whereas others prefer mammals.


Visceral Leishmaniasis Blood Meal Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lepromatous Leprosy Mucosal Leishmaniasis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Magill AJ. Epidemiology of the leishmaniases. Dermatoepidemiol 1995; 13: 505–523.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ashford R, Bettini S. Ecology and epidemiology: Old World. In: Peters W, Killick-Kendrick R, eds. The Leishmaniases in Biology and Medicine. Academic Press, London, 1987, pp. 365–420.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chang K, Bray R, eds. Leishmaniasis. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 1985.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    McHugh CP. Arthropods: vectors of disease agents. Lab Med 1994; 25: 429–437.Google Scholar
  5. 4a.
    Bowles E. The Mosquito Book. Mississippi Department of Public Health, April 1989.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    Lane RP. Sandflies. In: Lane RP, Crosskey RW, eds. Medical Insects and Arachnids. Chapman and Hall, London, 1993, pp. 78–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 6.
    Pearson RD, Sousa ADQ. Leishmania species: visceral, cutaneous, and mucosal leishmaniasis. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1995, pp. 2428–2438.Google Scholar
  8. 6a.
    Infections in Medicine. 1999; (September issue):16:651.Google Scholar
  9. 7.
    Harwood RF, James MT. Entomology in Human and Animal Health. 7th ed. Macmillan, New York, 1979.Google Scholar
  10. 8.
    McHugh CP, Melby PC, LaFon SG. Leishmaniasis in Texas: epidemiology and clinical aspects of human cases. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1996; 55: 547–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 9.
    McHugh CP, Grogl M, Kerr SF. Isolation of Leishmania mexicana from Neotoma micropus collected in Texas. J Parasitol 1990; 76: 741–742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 10.
    McHugh CP, Grogl M, Kreutzer RD. Isolation of Leishmania mexicana from Lutzomyia anthophora collected in Texas. J Med Entomol 1993; 30: 631–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 11.
    Kerr SF, McHugh CP, Dronen NO Jr. Leishmaniasis in Texas: prevalence and seasonal transmission of Leishmania mexicana in Neotoma micropus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1995; 53: 73–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 12.
    Markell EK, Voge M, John DT. Medical Parasitology. 7th ed. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1992.Google Scholar
  15. 13.
    Golino A, Duncan JM, Zeluff B, DePriest J, McAllister HA, Radovancevic B, Frazier OH. Leishmaniasis in a heart transplant patient. J Heart Lung Transplant 1992; 11: 820–823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 14.
    Benenson AS. Control of Communicable Diseases Manual. 16th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, 1995.Google Scholar
  17. 15.
    Koehler JE. Bartonella: an emerging human pathogen. In: Scheld WM, Armstrong D, Hughes JM, eds. Emerging Infections. vol. 1. American Society of Microbiology, Washington, DC, 1998, pp. 147–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 16.
    Weinman D, Kreier JP: Bartonella and Grahamella. In: Kreier JP, ed. Parasitic Protozoa. vol. 4. Academic, New York, 1977, pp. 197–233.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jerome Goddard
    • 1
  1. 1.Mississippi Department of HealthUniversity of Mississippi Medical CenterJacksonUSA

Personalised recommendations