Sand Fly-Transmitted Diseases
Sand flies are tiny gnats (Fig.1) that breed in dark, moist areas with plenty of available organic matter, which serves as food for the larvae. Examples of breeding sites include hollow trees, animal burrows, and under dead leaves. Female sand flies have piercing mouthparts and are bloodsuckers. Males take moisture from any available source and are even said to suck human sweat. After a blood meal, the female scatters between 30 and 70 eggs in the potential breeding site; they hatch about 1–2 wk later. There are four larval stages, with each stage consuming decaying organic matter and perhaps microorganisms. The pupal stage is inactive and emergence occurs in 5–10 d. Adults seek out cool, moist places to rest, such as caves, cracks in rocks, or tree holes. At night they come out to feed. Some species prefer to feed on reptiles, whereas others prefer mammals.
KeywordsVisceral Leishmaniasis Blood Meal Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lepromatous Leprosy Mucosal Leishmaniasis
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