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Why Mosquitoes Cannot Transmit HIV

  • Jerome Goddard
Part of the Infectious Disease book series (ID)

Abstract

Because human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a blood-borne pathogen, concerns have been raised about the possible transmission of HIV by blood-feeding arthropods. Laboratory studies and epidemiologic surveys indicate that this possibility is extremely remote. For biological transmission, the virus must avoid digestion in the gut of the insect, recognize receptors on and penetrate the gut, replicate in insect tissue, recognize and penetrate the insect salivary glands, and escape into the lumen of the salivary duct. In one study by Webb and colleagues, the virus persisted for 8 d in bedbugs (1). Another study by Humphrey-Smith and colleagues showed the virus to persist for 10 d in ticks (2) artificially fed meals with high levels of virus (≥105 tissue-culture infective doses/mL [TCID/mL]), but there was no evidence of viral replication. Intra-abdominal inoculation of bedbugs and intrathoracic inoculation of mosquitoes were used to bypass any gut barriers, but again the virus failed to multiply (1). Likewise, in vitro culture of HIV with a number of arthropod cell lines indicated that HIV was incapable of replicating in these systems. Thus, biological transmission of HIV seems extremely improbable.

References

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    Webb PA, Happ CM, Maupin GO, Johnson BJB, Ou C-H, Monath TP. Potential for insect transmission of HIV: experimental exposure of Cimex hemipterous and Toxorhynchites amboinensis to human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis 1989; 160: 970–977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Humphery-Smith I, Donker G, Turzo A, Chastel C, Schmidt-Mayerova H. Evaluation of mechanical transmission of HIV by the African soft tick, Ornithodoros moubata. AIDS 1993; 7: 341–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Castro KG, Lieb S, Jaffe HW, et al. Transmission of HIV in Belle Glade, Florida: lessons for other communities in the United States. Science 1988; 239: 193–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jerome Goddard
    • 1
  1. 1.Mississippi Department of HealthUniversity of Mississippi Medical CenterJacksonUSA

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