Advertisement

Arthropods and Health

  • Jerome Goddard
Part of the Infectious Disease book series (ID)

Abstract

The phylum Arthropoda includes insects, spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions, centipedes, millipedes, crabs, shrimp, lobsters, sowbugs (rolly-pollies), and other related organisms. Arthropods are characterized by segmented bodies; paired, jointed appendages (e.g., legs and antennae); an exoskeleton; and bilateral symmetry (Fig. 1) (1). Arthropods display an amazing diversity and abundance. They make up more than 85% of all known animal species (2). Arthropods are found on every continent, and a square meter of vegetation is literally teeming with them. For brevity, four classes of arthropods will be discussed in this chapter—insects, arachnids, centipedes, and millipedes. Table 1 discusses some key characteristics of the major arthropod groups.

Keywords

Lyme Disease Dengue Fever Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Head Louse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Borror DJ, Triplehorn CA, Johnson NF. An Introduction to the Study of Insects. 6th ed. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1989.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lane RP, Crosskey RW, eds. Medical Insects and Arachnids. Chapman and Hall, New York, 1996.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cushing EC, History of Entomology in World War II. Smithsonian Institution,Washington, 1957.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mumcuoglu YK, Zias J. Head lice from hair combs excavated in Israel and dated from the first century B.C. to the eighth century A.D. J Med Entomol 1988; 25: 545–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hoeppli R. Parasitic diseases in Africa and the Western Hemisphere, early documentation and transmission by the slave trade. Acta Tropica 1969; Suppl. 10: 33–46.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Harwood RF, James MT. Entomology in Human and Animal Health, 7th ed. Macmillan, New York, 1979.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goddard J. Direct injury from arthropods. Lab Med 1994; 25: 365–371.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Reisman RE. Insect stings. N Engl J Med 1994; 33: 523–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Frazier CA, Brown FK. Insects and Allergy. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1980.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barnard JH. Studies of 400 hymenoptera sting deaths in the U.S. J Allerg Immunol 1992; 4: 275–285.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goddard J. Physician’s Guide to Arthropods of Medical Importance, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1996.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Simard JM, Watt DD. Venoms and toxins. In: Polis GA, ed. The Biology of Scorpions. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. 1990: 414 444.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Alexander JO. Arthropods and Human Skin. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sherman RA. Maggot debridement in modern medicine. Infect Med 1998; 15: 651–656.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    McHugh CP. Arthropods: vectors of disease agents. Lab Med 1994; 25: 429–437.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Goddard J. Viruses transmitted by mosquitoes: dengue fever. Infect Med 1996; 13: 933–934.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gubler DJ, Clark GG. Dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever: the emergence of a global health problem. Emerg Infect Dis 1995; 1: 55–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Breman JG, Steketee RW. Malaria. In: Last JM, Wallace RB, eds. Public Health and Preventive Medicine, 13th ed. Appleton and Lange, Norwalk, CT, 1992: 240–250.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sturcher D. How much malaria is there worldwide? Parasitol Today 1989; 5: 39.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Strausbaugh LJ. Emerging infectious diseases: a challenge to us all. Am Fam Phys 1997; 55: 111–117.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    CDC. Lyme disease — United States, 1995. MMWR 1996; 45: 481–484.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Maeda K, Markowitz N, Hawley RC, Ristic M, Cox D, McDade JE. Human infection with Ehrlichia Canis a leukocytic rickettsia. N Engl J Med 1987; 316: 853–856.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jerome Goddard
    • 1
  1. 1.Mississippi Department of HealthUniversity of Mississippi Medical CenterJacksonUSA

Personalised recommendations