Exosomes for Immunotherapy of Cancer
The biology of small vesicles (1–4) secreted from antigen-presenting cells (APCs) recently raised a great deal of interest with the demonstration of their potent immunostimulatory functions in tumor models (5,6). The origin of vesicle secretion was first described (7) in differentiating red blood cells where multivesicular bodies (MVBs) fused with plasma membrane in an exocytic manner. This exocytic pathway was later shown to occur in a wide variety of cell types such as B lymphocytes, mastocytes, immature dendritic cells (DCs), platelets, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and tumor cells (6,8–15). Vesicles exocytosed from MVBs into the extracellular medium are referred to as “exosomes” and should not be confused with the more recently described “ribonuclease complex” also named exosome.
KeywordsMajor Histocompatibility Complex Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Tumor Rejection Malignant Effusion Immunotherapy Strategy
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