Hapten-Modified Tumor Vaccines

  • David Berd
Part of the Cancer Drug Discovery and Development book series (CDD&D)


Haptens are tiny lights that illuminate the dark recesses of the immune system. They were discovered by Karl Landsteiner, who used haptens to explore the breadth and fine sensitivity of antibody responses. Landsteiner (1) worked with a variety of simple chemicals, including nitrophenyls and phenyl arsonates, that were incapable of inducing an immune response by themselves, but became immunogenic when they were attached covalently to a protein carrier. He coined the term “hapten” from the Greek haptein, meaning to fasten.


Major Histocompatibility Complex Melanoma Cell Antigenic Determinant Purify Protein Derivative Sulfanilic Acid 
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© Humana Press Inc. 2004

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  • David Berd

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