Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B

  • David L. Blazes


Toxins are biologically derived substances that adversely affect living organisms. An astounding number of toxins produced by animals, plants, and bacteria are harmful to humans. Toxins cause food poisonings and envenomations, bleeding disorders, and neurological dysfunction. They act via many diverse mechanisms and produce some of the most dramatic illnesses in humans.


Inhalational Exposure Toxic Shock Syndrome Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ulrich RG, Side11 S, Taylor TT, et al. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B and related pyrogenic toxins. In: Sidell FR, Takafuji ET, Franz DR, eds. Textbook of Military Medicine: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biologic Warfare. Borden Institute, Washington, DC, 1997, pp. 621–630.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hursh S, McNally R, Fanzone J Jr, Mershon M. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B battlefield challenge modeling with medical and non-medical countermeasures. Technical Report MBDRP-95–2. Science Applications International, Joppa, MD, 1995.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Betley MJ, Borst DW, Regassa LB. Staphylococcal enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin, and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins: a comparative study of their molecular biology. Chem Immunol 1992;55:1–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ulrich RG, Bavari S, Olson M. Bacterial superantigens in human diseases: structure, function, and diversity. Trends Microbiol 1995;3:463–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Prasad GS, Earhart CA, Murray DL, et al. Structure of the toxic shock toxin. Biochemistry 1993;32:13,761–13,766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Drake CG, Kotzin BL. Superantigens: biology, immunology, and potential role in disease. J Clin Immunol 1992;12:149–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Reda KB, Rich RR. Superantigens. In: Rich RR, ed. Clinical Immunology: Principles and Practice. Mosby-Year Book, Chicago, 1996, pp. 132–148.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mattix ME, Hunt RE, Wilhelmsen CL, et al. Aerosolized staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced pulmonary lesions in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Toxicol Pathol 1995;23:262–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Franz DR, Jahrling PB, Friedlander AM, et al. Clinical Recognition and management of patients exposed to biological warfare agents. JAMA 1997; 278:399–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Peruski AH, Johnson LH, Peruski LF. Rapid and sensitive detection of biological warfare agents using time resolved fluorescent assays. J Immunol Methods 2002;263:35–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Naimushin AN, Soelberg SD, Nguyen DK, et al. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B at femtomolar levels with a miniature integrated two-channel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. Biosens Bioelectron 2002;17:573–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    LeClaire RD, Hunt RE, Bavari S. Protection against bacterial superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B by passive vaccination. Infect Immun 2002;70:2278–2281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arad G, Hillman D, Levy R, Kaempfer R. Superantigen antagonist blocks Thl cytokine gene induction and lethal shock. J Leukoc Biol 2001;69:921–927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hale ML, Margolin SB, Krakauer T, et al. Pirfenidone blocks the in vitro and in vivo effects of staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Infect Immun 2002;70:2989–2994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tseng J, Komisar JL, Trout RN, et al. Humoral immunity to aerosolized staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), a superantigen, in monkeys vaccinated with SEB toxoid-containing microspheres. Infect Immun 1995;63:2880–2885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stiles BG, Garza AR, Ulrich RG, Boles JW. Mucosal vaccination with recombinantly attenuated staphylococcal enterotoxin B and protection in a murine model. Infect Immun 201;69:201–2036.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee JS, Dyas BK, Nystrom SS, et al. Immune protection against staphylococcal enterotoxin-induced toxic shock by vaccination with a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon. J Infect Dis 2002;185:1192–1196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rich RR. Clinical Immunology: Principles and Practice. St. Louis, MO, Mosby, 1996.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • David L. Blazes

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations