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Botulinum Toxins

  • Naomi E. Aronson
Chapter

Abstract

Botulism, a clinical intoxication, was named from botulus (Latin for sausage) after a late 18th century German outbreak caused by blood sausage. Since World War I, outbreaks in the United States have been commonly associated with the home preservation of vegetables and fish. In Europe, home-cured ham and sausage are more frequent vehicles. Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic organism that is widespread in soil and salt water and freshwater mud. It forms heat-resistant spores. Eight distinct protein toxins from germinating spores have been described; A, B, C1, C2, D, E, F, and G. Regional differences are noted, with type A predominating in the western United States, B in the eastern United States and Europe, and E in the Great Lakes, Alaska, and Southeast Asia areas.

Keywords

Botulinum Toxin Cervical Dystonia Clostridium Botulinum Biological Weapon Acute Intermittent Porphyria 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naomi E. Aronson

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