Advertisement

Vesicoureteral Reflux

  • David B. Joseph
Chapter
Part of the Current Clinical Urology book series (CCU)

Abstract

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) continues to define the practice of pediatric urology. VUR, or retrograde flow of urine from the bladder to the kidney, was identified in humans more than 100 years ago by Pozzi (1).

Keywords

Vesicoureteral Reflux Urinary Infection Renal Scarring Ureteral Orifice Pediatric Urology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Godley ML. (2001) Vesicoureteral reflux: pathophysiology and experimental studies. In: Gearhart JP, Rink RC, Mouriquand PDE, eds., Pediatric Urology, Philadelphia: WB Saunders, pp. 359–381.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lich RJ, Howerton LW, Goode LS, et al. (1964) The ureterovesical junction in the newborn. J Urol 92: 436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Peters PC, Johnson DE, Jackson JH Jr. (1967) The incidence of vesicoureteral reflux in the premature child. J Urol 97: 259–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bailey RR. (1979) Vesicoureteric reflux in healthy infants and children. In: Hodson J, Kincaid-Smith P (eds), Reflux Nephropathy, New York: Masson, pp. 59–61.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kunin C, Deutscher R, Paquin AJ. (1964) Urinary tract infection in school children: an epidemiological, clinical and laboratory study. Medicine (Baltimore) 43: 91–130.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Smellie JM, Normand IC (1966) Clinical features and significance of urinary tract infection in children. Proc R Soc Med 59: 415–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wein AJ, Schoenberg HW. (1972) A review of 402 girls with recurrent urinary tract infection. J Urol 107: 329–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Winberg J, Anderson H, Bergstrom T, et al. (1974) Epidemiology of symptomatic urinary tract infection in childhood. Acta Paediatr Scand 252: 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abbott G. (1972) Neonatal bacteriuria: a prospective study in 1460 infants. BMJ 1: 267–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Savage DC, Wilson MI, McHardy M, et al. (1973) Covert bacteriuria of childhood: a clinical and epidemiological study. Arch Dis Child 48: 8–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Smellie J. (1972) Do urinary tract infections really matter in children? Proc R Soc Med 65: 513, 514.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Govan DE, Fair WR, Friedland et al. (1975) Management of children with urinary tract infections: the Stanford experience. Urology 6: 273–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Belman AB. (1981) Urinary tract infection and reflux (editorial). JAMA 246: 74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thomas D. (1998) Prenatally detected uropathy: epidemiological considerations. Br J Urol 81: 8–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Noe HN. (1992) The long-term results of prospective sibling reflux screening. J Urol 148: 1739–1742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Noe H, Wyatt R, Peeden JJ, et al. (1992) The transmission of vesicoureteral reflux from parent to child. J Urol 148: 1869.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wan J, Greenfield SP, Ng M, et al. (1996) Sibling reflux: a dual center retrospective study. J Urol 156: 677–679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Burger RH, Burger SE. (1974) Genetic determinants of urologie disease. Urol Clin North Am 1: 419–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Torres M, Gomex-Pardo E, Dressler GR, et al. (1995) Pax-2 controls multiple steps of urogenital development. Development 121: 4057–4065.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sanyanusin P, Schimmenti LA, McNoe LA, et al. (1995) Mutation of the PAX2 gene in a family with optic nerve colobomas, renal anomalies and vesicoureteral reflux. Nat Genet 9: 358–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kunin CM. (1970) The natural history of recurrent bacteruria in school girls. N Engl J Med 282: 1443–1448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kuntz DH. (1977) Does ureteric reflux protect against calculus formation? Br J Urol 49: 80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Askari A, Belman AB. (1982) Vesicoureteral reflux in black girls. J Urol 127: 747–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Horowitz M, Gershbein AB, Glassberg KI. (1999) Vesicoureteral reflux in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis confirmed at birth: Racial differences. J Urol 161: 248–250.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Skoog SJ, Belman AB. (1991) Primary vesicoureteral reflux in the black child. Pediatrics 87 (4): 538–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Baker R, Masted W, Maylath J, et al. (1966) Relation of age, sex, and infection to reflux: data indicating high spontaneous cure rate in pediatric patients. J Urol 95: 26.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Smellie J, Edwards D, Hunter N, et al. (1975) Vesico-ureteric reflux and renal scarring. Kidney Int 4 (Suppl): 65–72.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bellinger MF, Duckett JW. (1984) Vesicoureteral reflux: a comparison of nonsurgical and surgical management. Contrib Nephrol 39: 81–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Goldraich NP, Goldraich IH. (1992) Followup of conservatively treated children with high and low grade vesicoureteral reflux: a prospective study. J Urol 148: 1688–1692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Merguerian PA, Jamal MA, Agarwal SK, et al. (1999) Utility of SPECT DMSA renal scanning in the evaluation of children with primary vesicoureteral reflux. Urology 53: 1024–1028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    el Khatib MT, Becker GJ, Kincaid Smith PS. (1990) Reflux nephropathy and primary vesicoureteric reflux in adults (see comments). QJ Med 77: 1241–1253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yeung CK, Godley ML, Dhillon HK, et al. (1997) The characteristics of primary vesico-ureteric reflux in male and female infants with prenatal hydronephrosis. Br J Urol 80: 319–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sheridan M, Jewkes F, Gough DCS. (1991) Reflux nephropathy in the 1st year of life: the role of infection. Pediatr Surg Int 6: 214–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Burge DM, Griffiths MD, Malone PS, et al. (1992) Fetal vesicoureteral reflux: outcome following conservative postnatal management. J Urol 148: 1743–1745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ring E, Petritsch P, Riccabona M, et al. (1993) Primary vesicoureteral reflux in infants with a dilated fetal urinary tract. Eur J Pediatr 152: 523–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Marra G, Barbieri G, dell’ Angola CA, et al. (1994) Congenital renal damage associated with primary vesicoureteral reflux detected prenatally in male infants. J Pediatr 124: 726–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Oliveira EA, Diniz JS, Silva JM, et al. (1998) Features of primary vesicoureteric reflux detected by investigation of fetal hydronephrosis. Int Urol Nephrol 30: 535–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Herndon CD, McKenna PH, Kolon TF, et al. (1999) A multicenter outcomes analysis of patients with neonatal reflux presenting with prenatal hydronephrosis. J Urol 162: 1203–1208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chandra M, Maddix H. (2000) Urodynamic dysfunction in infants with vesicoureteral reflux. J Pediatr 136: 754–759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hinman F. (1993) The ureter. In: Atlas of Urosurgical Anatomy, Philadelphia: WB Saunders, pp. 284–289.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Notley RG. (1969) The innervation of the upper ureter in man and in the rat: an ultrastructural study. J Anat 105: 393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Notley RG. (1970) The musculature of the human ureter. Br J Urol 42: 724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    McCormack LU, Anson BJ. (1950) The arterial supply of the ureter. Q Bull Northwest Univ Med School 24: 1.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hutch JA. (1961) Theory of maturation of the intravesical ureter. J Urol 86: 534–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tanagho EA, Hutch JA, Meyers, FH, et al. (1965) Primary vesicoureteral reflux: experimental studies of its etiology. J Urol 93: 165, 176.Google Scholar
  46. 45a.
    Mackie GG, Stephens FD. (1975) Duplex kidneys: a correlation of renal dysplasia with position of the ureteral orifice. J Urol 144: 274–280.Google Scholar
  47. 46.
    Hanna MC, Jeffs RD, Sturgess JM, et al. (1976) Ureteral structure and ultrastructure. Part II. Congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction and primary obstructive megaureter. J Urol 116: 725.Google Scholar
  48. 47.
    Hanna MK, Jeffs RD, Sturgess JM, et al. (1976) Ureteral structure and ultrastructure. Part I. The normal human ureter. J Urol 116: 725.Google Scholar
  49. 48.
    Bailey RR. (1973) The relationship of vesico-uretol reflux to urinary tract infection and chronic pyelonephritis-reflux nephropathy. Clin Nephrol 1: 132–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 48a.
    Farhat W, McLorie G, Geary D, et al. (2000) The natural history of neonatal vesicoureteral reflux associated with antenatal hydronephrosis. J Urol 164 (3 pt 2): 1057–1060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 49.
    Polito C, La Manna A, Rambaldi PF, et al. (2000) High incidence of a generally small kidney and primary vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol 164 (2): 479–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 50.
    Nguyen HT, Bauer SB, Peters CA, et al. (2000) 99m Technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy abnormalities in infants with sterile high grade vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol 164(5): 1674–1679.Google Scholar
  53. 51.
    Bachelard M, Sillen U, Hansson S, et al. (1999) Urodynamic pattern in asymptomatic infants: siblings of children with vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol 162 (5): 1733–1738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 52.
    Sillen U, Hellstrom AL, Holmdahl G, Solsnes E. (1999) The voiding pattern in infants with dilating reflux. BJU Im 83 (1): 83–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 53.
    Elder JS. (2000) Urinary tract infection. In: Behrman RE, Kleigman RM, Jenson HB, eds., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 16th ed., Philadelphia: WB Saunders, pp. 1621–1624.Google Scholar
  56. 54.
    Travis LB, Brouhard BH. (1995) Infections of the urinary tract. In: Rudolph A, ed., Rudolph’s Pediatrics, 20th ed., Stamford CT: Appleton and Lange, pp. 1388, 1389.Google Scholar
  57. 55.
    Craig JC, Knight JF, Sureshkumar P, et al. (1997) Vesicoureteric reflux and timing of micturating cystourethrography after urinary tract infection. Arch Dis Child 76: 275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 56.
    Asscher AW, McLachlan MS, Jones RV, et al. (1973) Screening for asymptomatic urinary-tract infection in schoolgirls: a two-centre feasibility study. Lancet 2: 1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 57.
    Anonymous. (1975) Asymptomatic bacteruria in schoolchildren in Newcastle upon Tyne. Arch Dis Child 50: 90–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 58.
    Anonymous. (1978) Sequelae of covert bacteruria in schoolgirls: a four-year follow-up study. Lancet 1: 889–893.Google Scholar
  61. 59.
    Savage DC, Wilson MI, McHardy M, Dewar DA, Fee WM. (1973) Covert bacteruria of childhood: a clinical and epidemiological study. Arch Dis Child 48: 8–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 60.
    Kunin CM. (1970) A ten-year study of bacteruria in schoolgirls: final report of bacteriologic, urologic, and epidemiologic findings. J Infect Dis 122: 382, 393.Google Scholar
  63. 61.
    Skoog SJ, Belman AB. (1991) Primary vesicoureteral reflux in the black child. Pediatrics 87: 538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 62.
    Zerin M, Ritchey ML, Chang ACH. (1993) Incidental vesicoureteral reflux in neonates with antenatally detected hydronephrosis and other renal anomalies. Radiology 187: 157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 63.
    Burge DM, Griffiths MD, Malone PS, Atwell JD. (1992) Fetal vesicoureteral reflux: outcome following conservative postnatal management. J Urol 148: 1743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 64.
    Jaswon MS, Dibble L, Puri S, et al. (1999) Prospective study of outcome in antenatally diagnosed renal pelvis dilation. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 80: 135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 65.
    Tibballs JM, DeBruyn R. (1996) Primary vesicoureteric reflux-How useful is postnatal ultrasound? Arch Dis Child 75: 444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 66.
    Najmaldin A, Burge DM, Atwell JD. (1990) Fetal vesicoureteric reflux. Br J Urol 65: 403–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 67.
    Gordon AC, Thomas DF, Arthur RJ, Irving HC, Smith SE. (1990) Prenatally diagnosed reflux: a follow-up study. Br J Urol 65: -407–412.Google Scholar
  70. 68.
    Anderson PA, Rickwood AM. (1991) Features of primary vesicoureteric reflux detected by prenatal sonography. Br J Urol 67: 267–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 69.
    Greenfield SP, Wan J. (2001) The diagnosis and medical management of primary vesicoureteral reflux. In: Gearhart JP, Rink RC, Mouriquand PDE, eds., Pediatric Urology, Philadelphia: WB Saunders, pp. 382–410.Google Scholar
  72. 70.
    Wan J, Greenfield SP, Ng M, et al. (1996) Sibling reflux: a dual center retrospective study. J Urol 156: 677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 71.
    Jerkins GR, Noe HN. (1982) Familial vesicoureteral reflux: a prospective study. J Urol 128: 774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 72.
    Peeden JN, Noe HN. ( 1992 Is it practical to screen for familial vesicoureteral reflux within a private pediatric practice? Pediatrics 89: 758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 73.
    Mulcahy JJ, Kelalis PP, Stickler GB, Burke EC. (1970) Familial vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol 104: 762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 74.
    Sirota L, Hertz M, Laufer J, et al. (1986) Familial vesicoureteral reflux: a study of 16 families. Urol Radiol 8: 22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 75.
    Kenda RB, Fettich JJ. (1992) Vesicoureteric reflux and renal scars in asymptomatic siblings of children with reflux. Arch Dis Child 67: 506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 76.
    Noe HN, Wyatt RJ, Peeden JN Jr, Rivas ML. (1992) The transmission of vesicoureteral reflux fromparent to child. J Urol 148: 1869–1871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 77.
    Parekh DJ, Pope JC, Adams MC, Brock JW. (2002) Outcome of sibling vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol 167(1): 203, 204.Google Scholar
  80. 78.
    Song JT, Ritchey ML, Zerin JM, et al. (1995) Incidence of vesicoureteral reflux in children with unilateral renal agenesis. J Urol 153: 1249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 79.
    Selzman AA, Elder JS. (1995) Contralateral vesicoureterall reflux in children with a multicystic kidney. J Urol 153: 1252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 80.
    Zerin JM, Leiser J. (1998) The impact of vesicoureteral reflux on contralateral renal length in infants with multicystic dysplastic kidney. Pediatr Radiol 28: 683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 80a.
    Smellie JM, Normand ICS. (1979) Reflux nephropathy in childhood. In: Hodson J, Kincaid-Smith P, eds., Reflux Nephropathy, New York: Masson.Google Scholar
  84. 81.
    Flack CE, Bellinger MF. (1993) Multicystic dysplastic kidney and contralateral vesicoureteral reflux: protection of the solitary kidney. J Urol 150: 1873.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 82.
    Kass EJ, Kernen KM, Carey JM. (2000) Paediatric urinary tract infection and the necessity of complete urological imaging. BJU International 86 (1): 94–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 83.
    Paltiel HJ, Rupich RC, Kiruluta HG. (1992) Enhanced detection of vesicoureteral reflux in infants and children with use of cyclic voiding cystourethrography. Radiology 184: 753–755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 84.
    Polito C, Moggio G, La Manna A, et al. (2000) Cyclic voiding cystourethrography in the diagnosis of occult vesicoureteric reflux. Pediatr Nephrol 14 (1): 39–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 85.
    Gelfand MJ, Koch BL, Elgazzar AH, et al. (1999) Cyclic cystography: diagnostic yield in selected pediatric populations. Radiology 213 (1): 118–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 86.
    Bisset GS III, Strife JL, Dunbar JS. (1987) Urography and voiding cystourethrography: findings in girls with urinary tract infection. AJR 148: 479–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 87.
    Polito C, Rambaldi PF, La Manna A, Mansi L, Di Toro R. (2000) Enhanced detection of vesicoureteral reflux with isotopic cystography. Pediatr Nephrol 14 (8–9): 827–830.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 88.
    Conway IT, King LR, Belman AB, Thorson T Jr. (1972) Detection of vesicoureteral reflux with radionuclide cystography. A comparison study with roentgenographic cystography. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 115: 720–727.Google Scholar
  92. 89.
    Kleinman PK, Diamond DA, Karellas A, et al. (1994) Tailored low-dose fluoroscopic voiding cystourethrography for the reevaluation of vesicoureteral reflux in girls. AJR Am J Roentgenol 162: 1151–1154; discussion 1155, 1156.Google Scholar
  93. 90.
    Blomley MJ, Cooke JC, Unger EC, Monaghan MJ, Cosgrove DO. (2001) Microbubble contrast agents: a new era in ultrasound. BMJ 322 (7296): 1222–1225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 91.
    Radmayr C, Klauser A, Pallwein L, et al. (2002) Contrast enhanced reflux sonography in children: a comparison to standard radiological imaging. J Urol 167 (3): 1428–1430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 92.
    Darge K. (2002) Diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux with ultrasonography. Pediatr Nephrol 17 (2): 52–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 93.
    Darge K, Zieger B, Rohrschneider W, Ghods S, Wunsch R. (2001) Contrast-enhanced harmonic imaging for the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux in pediatric patients. AJR 177 (6): 1411–1415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 94.
    Darge K, Ghods S, Zieger B, Rohrschneider W, Trooger J. (2001) Reduction in voiding cystourethrographics after the introduction of contrast enhanced sonographic reflux diagnosis. Pediatr Radiol 31: 790–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 95.
    McDonald A, Scranton M, Gillespie R, Mahajan V, Edwards GA. (2000) Voiding cystourethrograms and urinary tract infections: how long to wait? Pediatrics 105 (4): E50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 96.
    Valentini AL, Salvaggio E, Manzoni C, et al. (2001) Contrast-enhanced gray-scale and color Doppler voiding urosonography versus voiding cystourethrography in the diagnosis and grading of vesicoureteral reflux. J Clin Ultrasound 29 (2): 65–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 97.
    Joseph DB, Young DW. (1989) Nuclear renography and SPECT imaging in infants and children with vesicoureteral reflux. Paper presented at the Southeastern Section AUA, April 8–11, 1989.Google Scholar
  101. 98.
    Levtchenko EN, Lahy C, Levy J, Ham HR, Piepsz A. (2001) Role of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy in the diagnosis of culture negative pyelonephritis. Pediatr Nephrol 166 (6): 503–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 99.
    Anonymous. (1 981) Medical versus surgical treatment of primary vesicoureteral reflux: a prospective international reflux study in children. J Urol 125: 277–283.Google Scholar
  103. 100.
    Heikel PE, Parkkulainen KV. (1966) Vesico-ureteric reflux in children: a classification and results of conservative treatment. Ann Radiol 9: 37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 101.
    Dwoskin JY, Perlmutter AD. (1973) Vesicoureteral reflux in children: a computerized review. J Urol 109: 888–890.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 102.
    WilliU,Treves S. (1983) Radionuclide voiding cystography.UrolRadio15: 161–173, 175.Google Scholar
  106. 103.
    Birmingham Reflux Study Group (1987) Prospective trial of operative versus non-operative treatment of severe vesicoureteric reflux in children: five years’ observation. BMJ 295: 237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 104.
    White RH, Winterborn MH, Taylor CM, et al. (1984) A prospective trial of operative versus non-operative treatment of severe vesico-ureteric reflux: 2 years’ observation in 96 children. Contrib Nephrol 39: 169.Google Scholar
  108. 105.
    International Reflux Study Committee. (1981) Medical versus surgical treatment of primary vesicoureteral reflux: a prospective international reflux study in children. J Urol 125: 277.Google Scholar
  109. 106.
    Smellie JM, Jodal U, Lax H, et al. (2001) Outcome at 10 years of severe vesicoureteral reflux managed medically: report of the International Reflux Study in Children. J Pediatr l39 (5): 656–663Google Scholar
  110. 107.
    Tamminen-Mobius T, Brunier E, Ebel KD, et al. (1992) Cessation of vesicoureteral reflux for 5 years in infants and children allocated to medical treatment. The International Reflux Study in Children. J Urol 148: 1662.Google Scholar
  111. 108.
    Smellie JM. (1992) Management of children with severe vesicoureteral reflux (Commentary). J Urol 148: 1676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 109.
    Weiss R, Duckett J, Spitzer A. (1992) Results of a randomized clinical trial of medical versus surgical management of infants and children with grades III and IV primary vesicoureteral reflux (United States). The International Reflux Study in Children. J Urol 148: 1667.Google Scholar
  113. 110.
    Olbing H, Claesson I, Ebel KD, et al. (1992) Renal scars and parenchymal thinning in children with vesicoureteral reflux: a 5-year report of the International Reflux Study in Children ( European Branch ). J Urol 148: 1653.Google Scholar
  114. 111.
    Jodal U, Koskimies O, Hanson E, et al. (1 992) Infection pattern in children with vesicoureteral reflux randomly allocated to operation or long-term antibacterial prophylaxis. The International Reflux Study in Children. J Urol 148: 1650.Google Scholar
  115. 112.
    Weiss R, Tamminen-Mobius T, Koskimies O, et al. (1992) Characteristics at entry of children with severe primary vesicoureteral reflux recruited for a multicenter, international therapeutic trial comparing medical and surgical management. The International Reflux Study in Children. J Urol 148: 1644.Google Scholar
  116. 113.
    Smellie JM, Tamminen-Mobius T, Olbing H, et al (1992) Five-year study of medical or surgical treatment in children with severe reflux: radiological renal findings. Pediatr Nephrol 6: 223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 114.
    Smellie JM, Barratt TM, Chantier C, et al. (2001)Medical versus surgical treatment in children with severe bilateral vesicoureteral reflux and bilateral nephropathy: a randomised trial. Lancet 357(9265): 1329–1333.Google Scholar
  118. 115.
    Craig JC, Irwig LM, Knight JF, Roy LP. (2000) Does treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in childhood prevent end-stage renal disease attributable to reflux nephropathy? Pediatrics 105 (6): 1236–1241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 116.
    Canning DA. (2000) Five-year study of medical or surgical treatment in children with severe vesico-ureteral reflux: dimercaptosuccinic acid findings. J Urol 163 (1): 380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 117.
    Piepsz A, Tamminen-Mobius T, Reiners C, et al. (1998) Five-year study of medical or surgical treatment in children with severe vesico-ureteral reflux dimercaptosuccinic acid findings. International Reflux Study Group in Europe. Eur J Pediatr 157 (9): 753–758.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 118.
    Choi H, Oh SJ, So Y, et al. (1999) No further development of renal scarring after antireflux surgery in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux: review of the results of 99mtechnetium dimercapto-succinic acid renal scan. J Urol 162 (3 pt 2): 1189–1192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 119.
    Webster RI, Smith G, Farnsworth RH, et al. (2000) Low incidence of new renal scars after ureteral reimplantation for vesicoureteral reflux in children: a prospective study. J Urol 163 (6): 1915–1918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 120.
    Edwards D, Normand IC, Prescod N, et al. (1977) Disappearance of vesicoureteric reflux during long-term prophylaxis of urinary tract infection in children. BMJ 2: 285–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 121.
    Murnaghan GF, Williams HBL, Jeremy D. (1965) Urological survey of chronic pyelonephritis and recurrent urinary infection without obstruction. B J Urol 37: 79–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 122.
    Smellie JM, Prescod NP, Shaw PJ, et al. (1998) Childhood reflux and urinary infection: a followup of 10–41 years in 226 adults. Pediatr Nephrol 12: 727–736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 123.
    Belman AB, Skoog SJ. (1989) Nonsurgical approach to the management of vesicoureteral reflux in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 8: 556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 124.
    Greenfield SP, Ng M, Wan J. (1997) Experience with vesicoureteral reflux in children: clinical characteristics. J Urol 158: 574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 125.
    Neel KF, Shillinger JF. (2000) The prevalence of persistent vesicoureteral reflux after 1 negative nuclear medicine cystogram. J Urol 164 (3 pt 2): 1067–1069.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 126.
    Weaver E, Craswell P. (1987) Pregnancy outcome in women with reflux nephropathy - A review of experience at the Royal Women’s Hospital: Brisbane, 1977–1986. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 27: 106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 127.
    Kincaid-Smith P, Fairley KF. (1987) Renal disease in pregnancy. Three controversial areas: mesangial IgA nephropathy, focal glomerular sclerosis (focal and segmental hyalinosis and sclerosis), and reflux nephropathy. Am J Kidney Dis 9: 328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 128.
    Shapiro E, Elder JS. (1998) The office management of recurrent urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux in children. Urol Clin N Am 25: 725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 129.
    El-Khatib M, Packham DK, Becker GJ, et al. (1994) Pregnancy-related complications in women with reflux nephropathy. Clin Nephrol 41: 50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 130.
    Jungers P, Houillier P, Chauveau D, et al. (1996) Pregnancy in women with reflux nephropathy. Kidney Int 50: 593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 131.
    Mattingly RF, Borkowf HI. (1978) Clinical implications of ureteral reflux in pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol 21: 863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 132.
    Jungers P, Houillier P, Forget D. (1987) Reflux nephropathy and pregnancy. Baillieres Clin Obstet Gynecol 1: 955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 133.
    Sweeney LE, Thomas PS. (1987) Evaluation of sub-ureteric Teflon injection as an antireflux procedure. Ann Radio] 30: 478–481.Google Scholar
  137. 134.
    Kass EH. (1960) Bacteriuria and pyelonephritis of pregnancy. Arch Intern Med 105: 194–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 135.
    Martine11 J, Jodal U, Lidin-Janson G. (1990) Pregnancies in women with and without renal scarring after urinary infection in childhood. BMJ 300: 840–844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 136.
    Sacks SH, Roberts R, Verrier Jones K, Asscher AW. (1987) Effect of symptomatic bacteriuria in childhood on subsequent pregnancy. Lancet 2: 991–994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 137.
    Elder JP, Peters CA, Arant BS, Ewalt DH. (1997) The management of primary vesicoureteral reflux in children. Clinical practice guidelines. The American Urological Association, 1997.Google Scholar
  141. 138.
    Fryczkowski J, Maruszewska A, Paradysz A, Maruszewski W. (1991) Evaluation of the course of pregnancy. delivery and the condition of the newborn infant in women operated on for vesicoureteral reflux in childhood. Int Urol Nephrol 23: 231–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 139.
    Mansfield JT, Snow BS, Cartwright PC, Wadsworth K. (1995) Complications of pregnancy in women after childhood reimplantation for vesicoureteral reflux: an update with 25 years of followup. J Urol 154: 787–790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 140.
    Belman AB. (1997) Vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol 158: 578 (editorial).Google Scholar
  144. 141.
    Thompson RH, Chen JJ, Pugach J, Naseer S, Steinhardt GF. (2001) Cessation of prophylactic antibiotics for managing persistent vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol 166 (4): 1465–1469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 142.
    Perez LM, Rushton HG. (2001) Evaluation and management of non-neuropathie daytime voiding disorders. In: Gearhart JP, Rink RC, Mouriquand PDE, eds., Pediatric Urology, Philadelphia: WB Saunders, pp. 470–495.Google Scholar
  146. 143.
    Lenaghan D, Whitaker JG, Jensen F, Stephens FD. (1976) The natural history of reflux and long-term effects of reflux on the kidney. J Urol 115: 728–730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 144.
    Brendstrup L, Hjelt K, Petersen KE, et al. (1990) Nitrofurantoin versus trimethoprim prophylaxis in recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Acta Paediatr Scand 79: 1225–1234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 145.
    Mackie GG, Awang H, Stephens FD. (1975) The ureteric orifice: the embryologic key to radiologie status of duplex kidneys. J Pediatr Surg 10473–481.Google Scholar
  149. 146.
    Lopes JF, Cendren M, Ellsworth PI. (2001) Cystoscopy at the time of ureteral reimplantation for primary vesicoureteral reflux: is it necessary? Incidence of undetected anomalies and cost. Urology 57 (6): 1156–1158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 147.
    Soygur T, Arikan N, Yesilli C, Gogus O. (1999) Relationship among pediatric voiding dysfunction and vesicoureteral reflux and renal scars. Urology 54 (5): 905–908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 148.
    Greenfield SP, Wan J. (2000) The relationship between dysfunctional voiding and congenital vesicoureteral reflux. Curr Opin Urol 10 (6): 607–610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Barroso U, Jednak R, Barthold JS. Gonzalez R. (2001) Outcome of ureteral reimplantation in children with the urge syndrome. J Urol 166(3): 1031–1035.Google Scholar
  153. 150.
    Burbige KA. (1991) Ureteral reimplantation: a comparison of results with the cross-trigonal and Politano-Leadbetter techniques in 120 patients. J Urol 146: 1352–1353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 151.
    Steffens J, Langen PH, Haben B, et al. (2000) Politano-Leadbetter ureteroneocystostomy: a 30-year experience. Urol Int 65 (1): 9–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 152.
    Glenn JF, Anderson EE. (1967) Distal tunnel ureteral reimplantation. J Urol 97: 623–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 153.
    Gonzales ET, Glenn JF, Anderson EE. (1972) Results of distal tunnel ureteral reimplantation. J Urol 107: 572–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 154.
    Politano V. (1963) One hundred reimplantations and five years. J Urol 90: 696–701.Google Scholar
  158. 155.
    Glenn JF, Anderson EE. (1978) Technical considerations in distal tunnel ureteral reimplantation. J Urol 119: 194–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 156.
    Cohen S. (1975) Ureterozystoneostomie. Eine neue antirefluxtechnik. Akt Urol 6: 1–8.Google Scholar
  160. 157.
    Ehrlich RM. (1982) Success of the transvesical advancement technique for vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol 128: 554–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 158.
    Ahmed S. (1978) Ureteral reimplantation by the transverse advancement technique. J Urol 119: 547–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 159.
    McCool AC, Perez LM, Joseph DB. (1997) Contralateral vesicoureteral reflux after simple and tapered unilateral ureteroneocystostomy revisited. J Urol 158: 12–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 160.
    Heimbach D, Bruhl P, Mallmann R. (1995) Lich-Gregoir anti-reflux procedure: indications and results with 283 vesicoureteral units. Scand J Urol Nephrol 29: 311–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 161.
    Marberger M, Altwein JE, Straub E, Wulff SH, Hohenfellner R. (1978) The LichGregoir antireflux plasty: experiences with 371 children. J Urol 120: 216–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 162.
    Linn R, Ginesin Y, Bolkier M, Levin DR. (1989) Lich-Gregoir anti-reflux operation: a surgical experience and 5–20 years of follow-up in 149 ureters. Eur Urol 16: 200–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 163.
    Lich R, Howerton L, Goode L, et al. (1 964) The uretero-vesical junction of the newborn. J Urol 92: 436.Google Scholar
  167. 164.
    Gregoir W, Van Regermorter G. (1964) Le reflux vesico-ureteral congenital. Urology Int 18: 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 165.
    Zaontz M, Maizels M, Sugar EC, Firlit CF. (1987) Detrusorrhaphy: extravesical ureteral advancement to correct vesicoureteral reflux in children. J Urol 138: 950.Google Scholar
  169. 166.
    Wacksman J, Gilbert A, Sheldon C. (1992) Results of the renewed extravesical reimplant for surgical correction of vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol 148: 359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 167.
    Houle A, McLorie GA, Heritz DM, et al. (1992) Extravesical nondismembered ureteroplasty with detrusorrhaphy: a renewed technique to correct vesicoureteral reflux in children. J Urol 148: 704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 168.
    Marotte JB, Smith DP. (2001) Extravesical ureteral reimplantations for the correction of primary reflux can be done as outpatient procedures. J Urol 165 (6 pt 2): 2228–2231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 169.
    Barrieras D, Lapointe S, Reddy PP, et al. (1999) Urinary retention after bilateral extravesical ureteral reimplantation: does dissection distal to the ureteral orifice have a role? J Urol: 162 (3 pt 2): 1197–2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 170.
    Minevich E, Aronoff D, Wacksman J, Sheldon CA. (1998) Voiding dysfunction after bilateral extravesical detrusorrhaphy. J Urol 160 (3 pt 2): 1004–1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 171.
    Puri P, Granata C. (1998) Multicenter survey of endoscopie treatment of vesicoureteral reflux using polytetrafluoroethylene. J Urol 160 (3 pt 2): 1007–1011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 172.
    O’Donnell B, Puri P. (1984) Treatment of vesicoureteric reflux by endoscopie injection of Teflon. BMJ (Clin Res Ed) 289: 7–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 173.
    Frey P, Lutz N. Jenny P, Herzog B. (1995) Endoscopie subureteral collagen injection for the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in infants and children. J Urol 154: 804–807.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 174.
    Puri P. (1995) Ten year experience with subureteric Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) injection (STING) in the treatment of vesicoureteric reflux. Br J Urol 75: 126–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 175.
    Malizia A, Reiman H, Myers R, et al. (1984) Migration and granulomatous reaction after periurethral injection of polytef ( Teflon ). JAMA 251: 3277.Google Scholar
  179. 176.
    Herz D, Hafez A, Bagli D, et al. (2001) Efficacy of endoscopic subureteral polydimethylsiloxane injection for treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children: a North American clinical report. J Urol 166 (5): 1880–1886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 177.
    Tsuboi N, Horiuchi K, Osawa S, et al. (2000) Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children with glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine dermal collagen: short-term results. J Nippon Med Sch 67 (1): 9–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 178.
    Caldamone AA, Diamond DA. (2001) Long-term results of the endoscopic correction of vesicoureteral reflux in children using autologous chondrocytes. J Urol 165 (6 pt 2): 2224–2227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 179.
    Kershen RT, Fefer SD, Atala A. (2000) Tissue-engineered therapies for the treatment of urinary incontinence and vesicoureteral reflux. World J Urol 18 (1): 51–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 180.
    Lackgren G, Wahlin N, Skoldenberg E, Stenberg A. (2001) Long-term followup of children treated with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer for vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol 166 (5): 1887–1892.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 181.
    Gill IS, Ponsky LE, Desai M, Kay R, Ross JH. (2001) Laparoscopie cross-trigonal Cohen ureteroneocystostomy: novel technique. J Urol 166 (5): 1811–1814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 182.
    Hendren WH. (1969) Operative repair of megaureter in children. J Urol 101: 491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 183.
    Hanna MK. (1979) New surgical method for one-stage total remodeling of massively dilated and tortuous ureter. Urology 14: 453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 184.
    Daher P, Diab N, Ghorayeb Z, Korkmaz G. (1999) The Kalicinski ureteral folding technique for megaureter in children. Experience in 23 cases. Eur J Pediatr Surg 9 (3): 163–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 185.
    Starr A. (1979) Ureteral plication: a new concept in ureteral tapering for megaureter. Invest Urol 17: 153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 186.
    Kalicinski ZH, Kansy J, Kotarbinska B, Joszt W. (1977) Surgery of megauretersmodification of the Hendren’s operation. J Pediatr Surg 12: 183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 186a.
    Joseph DB (2001) Ureterovesical junction anomalies-megaureters. In: Gearhart JP, Rinn MC, Mouriquand PDE, eds., Pediatric Urology, Philadelphia: WB Saunders.Google Scholar
  191. 187.
    Anderson C, Kevorkian T. (1998) Perioperative ketoralac in the pediatric patient. Society for Pediatric Urology Newsletter 1: 1, available at.Google Scholar
  192. 188.
    McCool AC, Joseph DB. (1995) Postoperative hospitalization of children undergoing cross-trigonal ureteroneocystostomy. J Urol 154: 794–796.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 189.
    Peters CA, Mandell J, Lebowitz RL, et al. (1989) Congenital obstructed megaureters in early infancy: diagnosis and treatment. J Urol 142: 641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 190.
    Perdynski W, Kalicinski ZH. (1996) Long-term results after megaureter folding in children. J Pediatr Surg 31: 1211–1217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 191.
    Ehrlich RM. (1985) The ureteral folding technique for megaureter surgery. J Urol 134: 668, 670.Google Scholar
  196. 192.
    Parrot TS, Woodard JR, Wolpert JJ. (1990) Ureteral tailoring: a comparison of wedge resection with infolding. J Urol 144: 328, 329.Google Scholar
  197. 193.
    Bjordal RI, Eek S, Knutrud O. (1978) Early reconstruction of wide ureter in children. Urology 11: 325–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 194.
    Bjordal RI, Stake G, Knutrud O. (1980) Surgical treatment of megaureters in the first few months of life. Ann Chir Gynaecol 69: 10–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 195.
    Hendren WH. (1975) Complications of megaureter repair in children. J Urol 113: 238–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 196.
    Sripathi V, King PA, Thompson MR, et al. (1991) Primary obstructive megaureter. J Pediatr Surg 26: 826–829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 197.
    Diamond DA, Parulkar BG. (1998) Ureteral tailoring in situ: a practical approach to persistent reflux in the dilated reimplanted ureter. J Urol 160: 998–1000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 198.
    Coleman JW, McGovern JH. (1979) A 20-year experience with pediatric ureteral reimplantation: surgical results in 701 children. In: Hodson J, Kincaid-Smith P, eds., Reflux Nephropathy, New York: Masson, pp. 299–305.Google Scholar
  203. 199.
    Liu C, Chin T, Wei C. (1999) Contralateral reflux after unilateral ureteral reimplantation: preexistent rather than new-onset reflux. J Pediatr Surg 34 (11): 1661–1664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 200.
    Sparr KE, Balcom AH, Mesrobian HG. (1998) Incidence and natural history of contralateral vesicoureteral reflux in patients presenting with unilateral disease. J Urol 160 (3 pt 2): 1023–1025.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 201.
    El-Ghoneimi A, Odet E, Lamer S, et al. (1999) Cystography after the Cohen ureterovesical reimplantation: is it necessary at a training center? J Urol 162 (3 pt 2): 1201–1202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 202.
    Barrieras D, Lapointe S, Reddy PP, et al. (2000) Are postoperative studies justified after extravesical ureteral reimplantation. J Urol 164 (3 pt 2): 1064–1066.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 203.
    Lavine MA, Siddiq FM, Cahn DJ, et al. (2001) Vesicoureteral reflux after ureteroneocystostomy: indications for postoperative voiding cystography. Tech Urol 7 (1): 50–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 204.
    Crossklaus DJ, Pope JC, Adams MC, Brock JW. (2001) Is postoperative cystography necessary after ureteral reimplantation? Urol 58 (6): 1041–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 205.
    Joseph DB. (2001) Survey results on medical and surgical followup of vesicoureteral reflux (editorial). J Urol 165: 563.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • David B. Joseph

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations