Pediatric Genitourinary Oncology

  • Fernando A. Ferrer
Part of the Current Clinical Urology book series (CCU)


Substantial advancements have been made in the treatment and survival of children with genitourinary cancer over the past 50 years. No better evidence of this is the outstanding survival enjoyed by a large number of patients with Wilm’s tumor. These improved outcomes are largely the result of multimodal therapy utilizing chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. Advancements may also be attributed to an organized approach to research and patient care.


Partial Nephrectomy Tumor Node Metastasis Clear Cell Sarcoma Tumor Study Group Favorable Histology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Young JL Jr, Miller RW. (1975). Incidence of malignant tumors in U. S. children. J Pediatr 86 (2): 254–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Maurer HM, Moon T, Donaldson M, et al. (1977). The intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study: a preliminary report. Cancer 40 (5): 2015–2026.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wiener E. (198). Rhabdomyosarcoma, In: O’Neil RM, Grosfeld JL, et al. (eds.), Pediatric Surgery, St. Louis, MO, CV Mosby, pp. 431–445.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pack G, Eberhart W. (1952). Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Skeletal Muscle: report of a 100 cases. Surgery 32: 1032.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Horne R., Enterline H. (1958). Rhabdomyosarcoma: A clinicalpathological study and classification of 39 cases. Cancer 11: 181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stobbe GDH. (1950). Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck in children and adolescents. Cancer 3: 826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pinkel D, Pinkeron J. (1961). Rhabdomyosarcoma in children. JAMA 175: 293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hays DM. (1993). Bladder/prostate rhabdomyosarcoma: results of the multi-institutional trials of the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study. Semin Surg Oncol 9 (6): 520–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Maurer HM, Gehan EA, Beltangady M., et al. (1993). The Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study-II. Cancer 71 (5): 1904–1922.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Andrassy RJ, Hays DM, Raney RB, et al. (1995). Conservative surgical management of vaginal and vulvar pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study III. J Pediatr Surg 30 (7):1034–1036; discussion pp. 1036–1037.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li FP, Fraumeni JF Jr, Mulvihill JJ, et al. (1998). A cancer family syndrome in twenty-four kindreds. Cancer Res 48 (18): 5358–5362.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pappo AS, Shapiro DN, and Crist WM. (1997). Rhabdomyosarcoma. Biology and treatment. Pediatr Clin N Am 4: 953–972.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hartley AL, Birch JM, Blair V, et al. (1993). Patterns of cancer in the families of children with soft tissue sarcoma. Cancer 72 (3): 923–930.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Malkin D, Frined SH, Li FP, Strong LC. (1990). Germ line p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasms. Science 250 (4985): 1233–1238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Diller L, Sexsmith E, Gottlieb A, et al. (1995). Germline p53 mutations are frequently detected in young children with rhabdomyosarcoma. J Clin Invest 95 (4): 1606–1611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grufferman S, Schwartz AG, Ruymann FB, Maurer HM. (1993). Parents’ use of cocaine and marijuana and increased risk of rhabdomyosarcoma in their children. Cancer Causes Control 4 (3): 217–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hartley AL, Birch JM, Blair V, et al. (1994). Foetal loss and infant deaths in families of children with soft-tissue sarcoma. Int J Cancer 56 (5): 646–649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tsokos M, Webber BL, Parham DM, et al. (1992). Rhabdomyosarcoma. A new classification scheme related to prognosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 116 (8): 847–855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dodd S, Malone M, McCulloch W. (1989). Rhabdomyosarcoma in children: a histological and immunohistochemical study of 59 cases. J Patho1158 (1): 13–18.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Parham DM, Webber B, Holt H, et al. (1991). Immunohistochemical study of childhood rhabdomyosarcomas and related neoplasms. Results of an Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma study project. Cancer 67 (12): 3072–3080.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wilcox DT. (2001). Rhabdomyosarcom, In: Gearhart JP, Rink RC, Mouriquand PDE (eds.), Pediatric Urology, Philadelphia, PA, W.B. Saunders, pp. 885–895.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lawrence W Jr, Hays DM, Heyn R, et al. (1987). Lymphatic metastases with childhood rhabdomyosarcoma. A report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study. Cancer 60 (4): 910–915.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wexler L, Helman L. (1997). Rhabdomyosarcoma and the undifferentiated sarcomas, In: Pizzo P, Poplack D (eds.), Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology, Philapdelphia, PA, Lippencot-Raven, pp. 799–829.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Raney RB Jr, Tefft M, Maurer HM, et al. (1988). Disease patterns and survival rate in children with metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma. A report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS)-I. Cancer 62 (7): 1257–1266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ruymann FB, Newton AW Jr, Ragab AH, et al. (1984). Bone marrow metastases at diagnosis in children and adolescents with rhabdomyosarcoma. A report from the intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study. Cancer 53 (2): 368–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Snyder HM, D’Angio GL, Evans AE, Raney, RB. (1998). In: Walsh PC, Retik AB, Vaughan EO Jr, Wein AJ. eds., Campbell’s Urology, Philadelphia, PA, WB Saunders, pp. 2210–2256.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Crist W, Gehan EA, Ragab AH, et al. (1995). The Third Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study. J Clin Oncol 13 (3): 610–630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sorensen PH, Lynch JC, Qualman SJ, et al. (2002). PAX3-FKHR and PAX7FKHR gene fusions are prognostic indicators in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the children’s oncology group. J Clin Oncol 20 (11): 2672–2679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cavenee WK. (2002). Muscling in on rhabdomyosarcoma. Nat Med 8 (11): 1200–1201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sharp R, Recio JA, Jhappan C, et al. (2002). Synergism between INK4a/ARF inactivation and aberrant HGF/SF signaling in rhabdomyosarcomagenesis. Nat Med 8 (11): 1276–1280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ferrara N. (2002). VEGF and the quest for tumour angiogenesis factors. Nat Rev Cancer 2 (10): 795–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pavlakovic H, Havers W, Schweigerer L. (2001). Multiple angiogenesis stimulators in a single malignancy: implications for anti-angiogenic tumour therapy. Angiogenesis 4 (4): 259–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Breslow N, Olshan A, Beckwith JB, Green DM. (1993). Epidemiology of Wilms tumor. Med Pediatr Oncol 21 (3): 172–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Breslow N, Olshan A, Beckwith JB, et al. (1994). Ethnic variation in the incidence, diagnosis, prognosis, and follow-up of children with Wilms’ tumor. J Nati Cancer Inst 86 (1): 49–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    D’ Angio GJ, Evans AE, Breslow N, et al. (1976). The treatment of Wilms’ tumor: Results of the national Wilms’ tumor study. Cancer 38 (2): 633–646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    D’Angio GJ, Evans A, Breslow N, et al. (1981). The treatment of Wilms’ tumor: results of the Second National Wilms’ Tumor Study. Cancer 47 91:2302–2311.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Beckwith J. (1969). Macroglossia, omphalocele, adrenal cytomegaly, gigantism and hyperplastic visceromegaly. Birth Defects: Orinal Article series 5: 88.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tank ES, Melvin T. (1990). The association of Wilms’ tumor with nephrologic disease. J Pediatr Surg 25 (7): 724–725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Perlman M, Levin M, Wittels B. (1975). Syndrome of fetal gigantism, renal hamartomas, and nephroblastomatosis with Wilms’ tumor. Cancer 35 (4): 1212–1217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Drash A, Sherman F, Hartmann WH, Blizzard RM. (1970). A syndrome of pseudohermaphroditism, Wilms’ tumor, hypertension, and degenerative renal disease. J Pediatr 76 (4): 585–593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Coppes MJ, Huff V, Pelletier J. (1993). Denys-Drash syndrome: relating a clinical disorder to genetic alterations in the tumor suppressor gene WT1. J Pediatr 123 (5): 673–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Choyke PL, Sigel MJ, Craft AW, et al. (1999). Screening for Wilms tumor in children with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome or idiopathic hemihypertrophy. Med Pediatr Oncol 32 (3): 196–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Green DM, Breslow NE, Beckwith JB, Norkool P. (1993). Screening of children with hemihypertrophy, aniridia, and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome in patients with Wilms tumor: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study. Med Pediatr Oncol 21 (3): 188–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Clericuzio CL. (1993). Clinical phenotypes and Wilms tumor. Med Pediatr Oncol 21 (3): 182–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hittner HM, Riccardi VM, Ferrell RE, et al. (1980). Genetic heterogeneity of aniridia: negative linkage data. Metab Pediatr Ophthalmol 4 (4): 179–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bonetta L, Kuehn SE, Huang A, et al. (1990). Wilms tumor locus on 11p13 defined by multiple CpG island-associated transcripts. Science 250 (4983): 994–997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Call KM, Glaser T, Ito, CY, et al. (1990). Isolation and characterization of a zinc finger polypeptide gene at the human chromosome 11 Wilms’ tumor locus. Cell 60 (3): 509–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Coppes MJ, Egeler RM. (1999). Genetics of Wilms’ tumor. Semin Urol Oncol 17 (1): 2–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Riccardi VM, Sujansky E, Smith AC, Francke U. (1978). Chromosomal imbalance in the Aniridia-Wilms’ tumor association: l 1p interstitial deletion. Pediatrics 61 (4): 604–610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Huff V. (1994). Inheritance aqnd Functionality of Wilms Tumor Genes. The Cancer Bulletin 46: 255.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Schmidt D, Beckwith JB. (1995). Histopathology of childhood renal tumors. Hematol Oncol Clin N Am 9 (6): 1179–1200.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bardeesy N, Falkoff D, Petruzzi MJ, et al. (1994). Anaplastic Wilms’ tumour, a subtype displaying poor prognosis, harbours p53 gene mutations. Nat Genet 7 (1): 91–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Beckwith JB, Palmer NF. (1978). Histopathology and prognosis of Wilms tumors: results from the First National Wilms’ Tumor Study. Cancer 41 (5): 19371948.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Karth J, Ferrer FA, Perlman E, et al. (2000). Coexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor in Wilms’ tumor. J Pediatr Surg 35 (12): 1749–1753.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Soffer SZ, Moore JT, Kim E, et al. (2001). Combination antiangiogenic therapy: increased efficacy in a murine model of Wilms tumor. J Pediatr Surg 36 (8): 1177–1181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Beckwith JB. (1993). Precursor lesions of Wilms tumor: clinical and biological implications. Med Pediatr Oncol 21 (3): 158–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Coppes MJ, Arnold M, Beckwith JB, et al. (1999). Factors affecting the risk of contralateral Wilms tumor development: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. Cancer 85 (7): 1616–1625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 57a.
    Gough DC. (2001) Wilms’ tumor. In: Gearhart JP, Rink RC, Mouriquand PDE (eds.). Pediatric Urology. Philadelphia, PA, W.B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  59. 58.
    Rithchey M. (2002). Pediatric Urologic Oncology, In: Gillenwater J, Grayhack JT, Howards SS, Mitchell ME. (eds.), Adult and Pediatric Urology, Philadelphia, PA, Lippincott William and Wilkens, p. 2623.Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    Voute PA Jr, van der Meer J, Staugaard-Kloosterziel W. (1971). Plasma renin activity in Wilms’ tumour. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 67 (1): 197–202.Google Scholar
  61. 60.
    Green DM, Breslow NE, Beckwith JB, et al. (1998). Comparison between single-dose and divided-dose administration of dactinomycin and doxorubicin for patients with Wilms’ tumor: a report from the National Wilms’ Tumor Study Group. J Clin Oncol 16 (1): 237–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Ritchey ML, Green DM, Breslow NE, et al. (1995). Accuracy of current imaging modalities in the diagnosis of synchronous bilateral Wilms’ tumor. A report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. Cancer 75 (2): 600–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Ritchey ML, Kelalis PP, Breslow N, et al. (2001). Surgical complications after primary nephrectomy for Wilms’ tumor: report from the National Wilms’ Tumor Study Group. J Am Coll Surg 192 (1):63–68; quiz 146.Google Scholar
  64. 63.
    Godzinski J, Tournade MF, deKraker, J, et al. (1998). Rarity of surgical complications after postchemotherapy nephrectomy for nephroblastoma. Experience of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology-Trial and Study “SIOP-9”. International Society of Paediatric Oncology Nephroblastoma Trial and Study Committee. Eur J Pediatr Surg 8 (2): 83–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Blute ML, Kelalis PP, OPfford KP, et al. (1987). Bilateral Wilms tumor. J Urol 138 (4 Pt 2): 968–973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Montgomery BT, Kelalis PP, Blute ML, et al. (1991). Extended followup of bilateral Wilms tumor: results of the National Wilms Tumor Study. J Urol 146 (2 (Pt 2)): 514–518.Google Scholar
  67. 66.
    Green DM, Breslow NE, Beckwith JB, et al. (2001). Treatment with nephrectomy only for small, stage I/favorable histology Wilms’ tumor: a report from the National Wilms’ Tumor Study Group. J Clin Oncol 19 (17): 3719–3724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Horwitz JR, Ritchey ML, Moksness J, et al. (1996). Renal salvage procedures in patients with synchronous bilateral Wilms’ tumors: a report from the National Wilms’ Tumor Study Group. J Pediatr Surg 31 (8): 1020–1025.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Lemerle J, Voute PA, Tournade MF, et al. (1983). Effectiveness of preoperative chemotherapy in Wilms’ tumor: results of an International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) clinical trial. J Clin Oncol 1 (10): 604–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Evans AE, Norkod P, Evans I, et al. (1991). Late effects of treatment for Wilms’ tumor. A report from the National Wilms’ Tumor Study Group. Cancer 67 (2): 331–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Kinsella TJ, Trivette G, Rowland J, et al. (1989). Long-term follow-up of testicular function following radiation therapy for early-stage Hodgkin’s disease. J Clin Oncol 7 (6): 718–724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Stillman RJ, Schinfeld JS, Schiff I, et al. (1981). Ovarian failure in long-term survivors of childhood malignancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 139 (1): 62–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Green DM, Grigoriev MA, Nan B, et al. (2001). Congestive heart failure after treatment for Wilms’ tumor: a report from the National Wilms’ Tumor Study group. J Clin Oncol 19 (7): 1926–1934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Harris CC. (1976). The carcinogenicity of anticancer drugs: a hazard in man. Cancer 37 (2 Suppl): 1014–1023.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Yeh A, Wei M, Golub SB, et al. (2002). Chromosome arm 16q in Wilms tumors: unbalanced chromosomal translocations, loss of heterozygosity, and assessment of the CTCF gene. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 35 (2): 156–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Lu YJ, Hing S, Williams R, et al. (2002). Chromosome lq expression profiling and relapse in Wilms’ tumour. Lancet 360 (9330): 385–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Takahashi M, Yang XJ, Lavery TT, et al. (2002). Gene expression profiling of favorable histology Wilms tumors and its correlation with clinical features. Cancer Res 62 (22): 6598–6605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Castleberry RP. (1997). Neuroblastoma. Eur J Cancer 33 (9):1430–1437; discussion 1437–1438.Google Scholar
  79. 78.
    Woods WG, Tuchman M, Robeson LL, et al. (1996). A population-based study of the usefulness of screening for neuroblastoma. Lancet 348 (9043): 1682–1687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Nagabuchi E, Ziegler MM. (1997). Neuroblastoma, In: Oldham KT, Colombani PM, Foglia RP. (eds.), Surgery of Infants and Children, Philadelphia, PA, Lippincot-Raven, pp. 593–614.Google Scholar
  81. 80.
    Lampert F, Rudolph B, Christiansen H, Franke F. (1988). Identical chromosome 1p breakpoint abnormality in both the tumor and the constitutional karyotype of a patient with neuroblastoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 34 (2): 235–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Kushner BH, Gilbert F, Helson L. (1986). Familial neuroblastoma. Case reports, literature review, and etiologic considerations. Cancer 57 (9): 1887–1893.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Brodeur GM, Seeger RC, Schwab M, et al. (1984). Amplification of N-myc in untreated human neuroblastomas correlates with advanced disease stage. Science 224 (4653): 1121–1124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Seeger RC, Brodeur GM, Sather H, et al. (1985). Association of multiple copies of the N-myc oncogene with rapid progression of neuroblastomas. N Engl J Med 313 (18): 1111–1116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Shimada H, Stram DO, Chatten J, et al. (1995). Identification of subsets of neuroblastomas by combined histopathologic and N-myc analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 87 (19): 1470–1476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Bown N, Cotterill S, Lastowska M, et al. (1999). Gain of chromosome arm 17q and adverse outcome in patients with neuroblastoma. N Engl J Med 340 (25): 1954–1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Nakagawara A, Arima M, Azar CG, et al. (1992). Inverse relationship between trk expression and N-myc amplification in human neuroblastomas. Cancer Res 52 (5): 1364–1368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    McLorie G, Bagli DJ. (2001). Adrenal Tumors in Children, In: Gearhart JP, Rink RC, Mouriquand PDE. (eds.), Pediatric Urology, Philadelphia, PA, W.B. Saunders, pp. 908–916.Google Scholar
  89. 88.
    Zeltzer PM, Marangops PJ, Parma AM, et al. (1983). Raised neuron-specific enolase in serum of children with metastatic neuroblastoma. A report from the Children’s Cancer Study Group. Lancet 2 (8346): 361–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    Shimada H, Chatten J, Newton WA Jr, et al. (1984). Histopathologic prognostic factors in neuroblastic tumors: definition of subtypes of ganglioneuroblastoma and an age-linked classification of neuroblastomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 73 (2): 405–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Enzinger FM, Weiss SW. (1988). Soft Tissue Tumors. St. Louis: Mosby.Google Scholar
  92. 91.
    Lucas K, Gula MJ, Kinley AS, et al. (1994). Catecholamine metabolites in ganglioneuroma. Med Pediatr Oncol 22 (4): 240–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 92.
    Sawada T. Past and future of neuroblastoma screening in Japan. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 1992. 14 (4): 320–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Naito H, Saski M, Yamashiro K, et al. (1990). Improvement in prognosis of neuro-blastoma through mass population screening. J Pediatr Surg 25 (2): 245–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 94.
    Williams CM, Greer M, (1963). Homovalnillic acid and vanillmandelic acid in diagnosis of neuroblastoma. JAMA 348: 1682.Google Scholar
  96. 95.
    Gerson JM, Koo CE. (1974). Neuroblastoma. Semin Oncol 1 (1): 35–46.Google Scholar
  97. 96.
    Joshi VV, Tsongalis GJ. (1997). Correlation between morphologic and non-morphologic prognostic markers of neuroblastoma. Ann N Y Acad Sci 824: 71–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 97.
    Silber JH, Evans AE, Fridman M. (1991). Models to predict outcome from childhood neuroblastoma: the role of serum ferritin and tumor histology. Cancer Res 51 (5): 1426–1433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Valentino L, Moss T, Olson E, et al. (1990). Shed tumor gangliosides and progression of human neuroblastoma. Blood 75 (7): 1564–1567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 98a.
    Lo Piccolo MS, Chung NK, Chung IY. (2001) GD2 synthase: a new molecular marker for detecting neuroblastoma. Cancer 92 (4): 924–931.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 99.
    Mattano LA Jr, Moss TJ, Emerson SG. (1992). Sensitive detection of rare circulating neuroblastoma cells by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Cancer Res 52 (17): 4701–4705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 100.
    Ng YY, Kingston JE (1993). The role of radiology in the staging of neuroblastoma. Clin Radiol 47 (4): 226–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 101.
    Tanabe M, Yoshida H, Ohnuma N, et al. (1993). Imaging of neuroblastoma in patients identified by mass screening using urinary catecholamine metabolites. J Pediatr Surg 28 (4): 617–621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 102.
    Paltiel Hi, Gelfand MJ, Elgazzar AH, et al. (1994). Neural crest tumors: 1–123 MIBG imaging in children. Radiology 190 (1): 117–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 103.
    Wirnsberger GH, Becker H, Ziervogel K, Hofler H, et al. (1992). Diagnostic immunohistochemistry of neuroblastic tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 16 (1): 49–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 104.
    Osmanagaoglu K, Lippens M, Benoit Y, et al. (1993). A comparison of iodine-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy and single bone marrow aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis and follow-up of 26 children with neuroblastoma. Eur J Nucl Med 20 (12): 1154–1160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 105.
    Brodeur GM, Seeger RC, Barrett A, et al. (1988). International criteria for diagnosis, staging, and response to treatment in patients with neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol 6 (12): 1874–1881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 106.
    Young JL Jr, Ries LG, Silverberg E, et al. (1986). Cancer incidence, survival, and mortality for children younger than age 15 years. Cancer 58 (2 Suppl): 598–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 107.
    Matthay KK, Sather HN, Seeger RC, et al. (1989). Excellent outcome of stage II neuroblastoma is independent of residual disease and radiation therapy. J Clin Oncol 7 (2): 236–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 108.
    Stram DO, Matthay KK, O’Leary M, et al. (1996). Consolidation chemoradiotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation versus continued chemotherapy for metastatic neuroblastoma: a report of two concurrent Children’s Cancer Group studies. J Clin Oncol 14 (9): 2417–2426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 109.
    Reynolds CP, Lemons RS. (2001). Retinoid therapy of childhood cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin N Am 15 (5): 867–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 110.
    Banelli B, Casciano I, Croce M, et al. (2002). Expression and methylation of CASP8 in neuroblastoma: Identification of a promoter region. Nat Med 8 (12): 1333–1335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 111.
    Spurbeck WW, Ng CY, Strom TS, et al. (2002). Enforced expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 affects functional capillary morphogenesis and inhibits tumor growth in a murine tumor model. Blood 100 (9): 3361–3368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 112.
    Ribatti D, Raffaghello L, Pastorino F, et al. (2001). In vivo angiogenic activity of neuroblastoma correlates with MYCN oncogene overexpression. Int J Cancer 102 (4): 351–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando A. Ferrer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations