Developmental Perspectives of Children with Genitourinary Anomalies
Genitourinary (GU) anomalies impact childhood development from the time of diagnosis. GU anomalies diagnosed at birth interact with all aspects of development. Parent-infant bonding, growth and development of parenting skills, psychosocial and psychosexual developmental milestones, parent-child bonding, marital relations, sibling relations, and peer relations are impacted. Family and child vulnerabilities tend to be accentuated, and coping skills are typically not innate (1). Protective factors and resiliency are present but are poorly understood at this time. GU anomalies are among the more common congenital defects, tending to be seen at birth or at least some time before puberty. Genetic and somatic pathophysiology have not been well elucidated, but sophisticated surgical and medical interventions are available. Surgical advances have moved faster than our understanding of the psychological consequences of both the anomalies and the surgical reconstructions. Despite the frequency of GU anomalies, there are few cross-sectional and outcome research studies regarding the significance of such anomalies on child development (2–6). Such outcome research is ongoing, but data and data analysis are incomplete (7,8).
KeywordsAnxiety Disorder Late Adolescence Psychosocial Development Gender Identity Disorder Body Image Distortion
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