Advertisement

Developmental Perspectives of Children with Genitourinary Anomalies

  • William G. Reiner
Chapter
Part of the Current Clinical Urology book series (CCU)

Abstract

Genitourinary (GU) anomalies impact childhood development from the time of diagnosis. GU anomalies diagnosed at birth interact with all aspects of development. Parent-infant bonding, growth and development of parenting skills, psychosocial and psychosexual developmental milestones, parent-child bonding, marital relations, sibling relations, and peer relations are impacted. Family and child vulnerabilities tend to be accentuated, and coping skills are typically not innate (1). Protective factors and resiliency are present but are poorly understood at this time. GU anomalies are among the more common congenital defects, tending to be seen at birth or at least some time before puberty. Genetic and somatic pathophysiology have not been well elucidated, but sophisticated surgical and medical interventions are available. Surgical advances have moved faster than our understanding of the psychological consequences of both the anomalies and the surgical reconstructions. Despite the frequency of GU anomalies, there are few cross-sectional and outcome research studies regarding the significance of such anomalies on child development (2–6). Such outcome research is ongoing, but data and data analysis are incomplete (7,8).

Keywords

Anxiety Disorder Late Adolescence Psychosocial Development Gender Identity Disorder Body Image Distortion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Reiner WG. (2001) Psychological and psychiatric aspects of genitourinary conditions. In: Gearhart JP, Rink RC, Mouriquand PDE, eds., Pediatric Urology, Philadelphia: WB Saunders, pp. 696–701.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Avolio L, Koo HP, Bescript AC, et al. (1996) The long-term outcome in men with exstrophy/epispadias: sexual function and social integration. J Urol 156: A22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ben-Chaim J, Jeffs RD, Reiner WG, et al. (1996) The outcome of patients with classic bladder exstrophy and adult life. J Urol 155: 1251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bomalaski MD, Teague JL, Brooks B. (1995) The long-term impact of urologie management on the quality of life of children with spina bifida. J Urol 154: 778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mathews R, Jeffs RD, Reiner WG, et al. (1998) Cloacal exstrophy-improving the quality of life: the Johns Hopkins experience. J Urol 160: 2452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rudeberg A, Donati F, Kaiser G. (1995) Psychosocial aspects in the treatment of children with myelomeningocele: an assessment after a decade. Eur J Pediatr 154: S85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Reiner WG. (1999) Psychosexual dysfunction in males with genital anomalies: late adolescence, Tanner stages 4–6. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38: 865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Reiner WG, Gearhart JP. (in press) Psychosexual dysfunction in males with major genital anomalies: Tanner stages 1–2.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Perrin EC, Gerrity PS. (1984) Development of children with a chronic illness. Pediatr Clin N Am 31: 19.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Taylor DC, Eminson DM. (1995) Psychological aspects of chronic physical sickness. In: Rutter M, Taylor E, Hersov L, eds., Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science, pp. 737–748.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Allen JR. (1998) Of resilience, vulnerability, and a woman who never lied. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 7: 53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hamburg BA. (1983) Chronic illness. In: Levine MD, Carey WB, Crocker AC, Gross RT, eds., Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, Philadelphia: WB Saunders, pp. 455–462.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yates A. (1993) Sexual and gender identity disorders. Sexually inhibited children Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2: 451.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Allen JR, Heston J, Durbin C, Pruitt D. (1998) Stressors and development: a reciprocal relationship. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 7: 1–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kiser LJ, Ostoja E, Pruitt DB. (1998) Dealing with stress and trauma in families. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 7: 87–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Alves SE, Akbari HM, Anderson GM, et al. (1997) Neonatal ACTH administration elicits long-term changes in forebrain monoamine innervation: subsequent disruption in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and gonadal function. Am NY Acad Sci 24: 814.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fameli M, Kitraki E, Stylianopoulou F. (1994) Effects of hyperactivity of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during pregnancy and the development of the HPA axis and brain monoamines of the offspring. Int J Dev Neurosci 12: 651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hill PD. (1994) Adjustment disorders. In: Rutter M, Taylor E, Hersov L, eds., Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, pp. 375–391.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Beidel DC, Morris TL. (1993) Avoidant disorder of childhood and social phobia. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2: 623.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Berenson CK. (1993) Evaluation and treatment of anxiety in the general pediatric population: a clinician’s guide. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2: 727.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • William G. Reiner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations