Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel

  • Zachary V. Zuniga
  • Barbara V. Wise
  • Kathy Kinsman
  • Steven G. Docimo
Part of the Current Clinical Urology book series (CCU)


Myelodysplasia is a common variant of neural tube defects, occurring in 1:1000 live births in the United States and estimated to affect 300,000 children worldwide. Classification as closed or open depends on the presence of exposed neural tissue or tissue covered by a thin membrane. Approximately 20% of children have associated congenital anomalies. Despite new surgical advances and in-utero procedures, children with neural tube defects have a variety of complex and challenging orthopedic, neurosurgical, and urologic problems that require careful assessment and lifelong management to reduce disability and improve quality of life.


Urinary Incontinence Bladder Neck Spina Bifida Neurogenic Bladder Clean Intermittent Catheterization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Low JA, Armstrong JB, Mauger GM. (1989) The unstable urethra in the female. Obstet Gynecol 74: 69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Verity C, Firth H, ffrench-Constant C. (2003) Congenital abnormalities of the central nervous system. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 74 (Suppl. 1): 13–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Elais ER, Hobbs N. (1998) Spina bifida: Sorting out the complexities of care. Contemp Pediatr 15 (4): 156–171.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jobe AH. (2002) Fetal surgery for myelomeningocele. N Engl J Med 347 (4): 230–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Northrup H, Volcik KA. (2000) Spina bifida and other neural tube defects. Curr Problems Pediatr 30: 317–332.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bilenber N, Lie HR. (2001) Behavioral and emotional problems in children with myelomeningocele (MMC). Eur J Surg 1 l(Suppl 1 ): S44 - S45.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hommeyer JS, Hombeck GN, Wills KE, Coers S. (1999) Condition severity and psychosocial functioning in pre-adolescents with spina bifida: disentangling proximal functional status and distal adjustment outcomes. J Pediatr Psychol 24 (6): 499–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Patriarca P, Korniewicz DM. (1999) Latex allergy and implications for urology nursing. Urology Nursing 19(3): 187–191, 201.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Porri F, Pradal M, Lemiere C, et al. (1997) Association between latex sensitization and repeated latex exposure in children. Anesthesiol 86 (3): 599–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marshall DF. (2001) Does the absence of anal reflexes guarantee a “safe bladder” in children with spina bifida? Eur J Surg 1 1 (Suppl I): S21 - S23.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Holmes NM, Nguyen HT, Harrison MR, Farmer DL, Baskin LS. (2001) Fetal intervention for myelomeningocele: effect on postnatal bladder function. J Urol 166: 2383–2386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Olutoye OO, Adzick NS. (1999) Fetal surgery for myelomeningocele. Sem Perinatol 23: 462–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Warder DE. (2001) Tethered cord syndrome and occult spinal dysraphism. Neurosurg Focus 10 (1).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cochrane DD, Finely C, Kestle J, Steinbok, P. (2000) The patterns of late deterioration in patients with transitional lipomeningocele. Eur J Surg 10 (Suppl I): 13–17.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Torre M, Planche D, Louis-Borrione C, et al. (2002) Value of electrophysiological assessment after surgical treatment of spinal dysraphism. J Urol 168 (4, Part 2 of 2): 1759–1763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tarcan T, Bauer S, Olmedo E, et al. (2001) Long-term follow-up of newborns with myelodysplasia and normal urodynamic findings: is follow-up necessary? J Urol 165: 564–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rai AS, Taylor TKF, Smith GHH, Cumming RG, Plunkett-Cole M. (2002) Congenital abnormalities of the urogenital tract in association with congenital vertebral malformations. J Bone Joint Surg Br 84: 891–895.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chan BWH, Chan K, Koide T, et al. (2002). Maternal diabetes increases the risk of caudal regression caused by retinoic acid. Diabetes 51 (9): 2811–2816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lynch SA, Wang Y, Strachan T, Burn J, Lindsay S. (2000) Autosomal dominant sacral agenesis: Currarino syndrome. J Med Genet 37 (8): 561–566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Muthukumar N. (1996) Surgical treatment of nonprogressive neurological deficits in children with sacral agenesis. Neurosurgery 38 (6): 1133–1138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Reiner 1, Jones M, Donnell S, et al. (1992) Incidence of normal micturition in myelomeningocele patients. Arch Dis Child 67: 640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Keshtgar AS, Rickwood AM. (1998) Urological consequences of incomplete cord lesions in patients with myelomeningocele. Br J Urol 82: 258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Holzbeierlein J, Pope J, Adams MC, et al. (2000) The urodynamic profile of myelodysplasia in childhood with spinal closure during gestation. J Urol 164: 1336–1339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    McGuire EJ, Woodside JR, Borden TA, et al. (1981) Prognostic value of urodynamic testing in myelodysplastic patients. J Urol 126: 205–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hurely RM, Harris D, Shepherd RR. (2000) Incontinence in myelodysplasia: imipramine hydrochloride revisited. Clin Pediatr 39 (8): 489–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wyndaele JJ. (2002) Intermittent catheterization: which is the optimal technique? Spinal Cord 40 (9): 432–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schlager TA, Clark M, Anderson S. (2001) Effect of a single-use sterile catheter for each void on the frequency of bacteriuria in children with neurogenic bladder on intermittent catheterization for bladder emptying. Pediatrics 108: E71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Van Hala S, Nelson VS, Hurvitz EA, et al. (1997) Bladder management in patients with pediatric onset neurogenic bladders. J Spinal Cord Med 20 (4): 410–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Szucs K, O’Neil K, Faden H. (2001) Urinary findings in asymptomatic subjects with spina bifida treated with intermittent catheterization. Pediatr Infect Dis J 20 (6): 638–639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ferrara P, d’Aleo CM, Tarquini E, Salvatore S, Salvaggio E. (2001) Side-effects of oral or intravesical oxybutynin chloride in children with spina bifida. Br J Urol 87 (7): 674–678.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Goldwasser B, Webster GD. (1986) Augmentation and substitution enterocystoplasty. J Urol 135: 215–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rink RC. (1999). Bladder augmentation: options, outcomes, future. Urol Clin N Am 26: 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Adams MC, Joseph DB. (2002) Urinary tract reconstruction in children. In: Walsh PC, Retik AB, Vaughn ED Jr, et al. (eds.), Campbell’s Urology, 8th ed., Philadelphia: WB Saunders, pp. 2508–2563.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hutcheson JC, Cooper CS, Canning DA. et al. (2001) The use of vesicostomy as permanent urinary diversion in the child with myelomeningocele. J Urol 166: 2351–2353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Park JM, McGuire EJ, Koo HP, et al. (2001) External urethral sphincter dilation for the management of high risk myelomeningocele: 15-year experience. J Urol 165: 2383–2388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cheng EY, Richards I, Kaplan WE. (1996) Use of bladder stimulation in high risk patients. J Urol 749 (156: Suppl. 2): 52.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Leroi AM, Michot F, Grise P, Denis P. (2001) Effect of sacral nerve stimulation in patients with fecal and urinary incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 44 (6): 779–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chartier-Kastler, EJ, Rudd Bosch JLH, Perrigot M, et al. (2000) Long-term results of sacral nerve stimulation (S 3) for the treatment of neurogenic refractory urge incontinence related to detrusor hyperreflexia. J Urol 164: 1476–1480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Snow BW, Cartwright PC. (1992) Autoaugmentation of the bladder. Contemp Urol 4: 41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cartwright PC, Snow BW (1989) Bladder autoaugmentation: partial detrusor excision to augment the bladder without use of bowel. J Urol 142 (4): 1050–1053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Marte A, Di Meglio D, Di Iorio G, et al. (2002) A long-term follow-up of autoaugmentation in myelodysplastic children. J Urol 89: 928–931.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bellinger MF. (1993) Ureterocystoplasty: a unique method for vesical augmentation in children. J Urol 149: 811–813.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Landau EH, Jayanthi, VR, Khoury, AE, et al. (1994) Bladder augmentation: ureterocystoplasty versus ileocystoplasty. J Urol 152: 716–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    McDougal WS. (1992) Metabolic complications of urinary intestinal diversion. J Urol 147: 1199–1208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Keating MA, Ludlow JK, Rich MA. (1996) Enterocystoplasty: the star modification. J Urol 155: 1723–1725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Goodwin WE, Winter CC, Barker WF. (2002) “Cup-patch” technique of ileocystoplasty for bladder enlargement or partial substitution. J Urol 168:667–670.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Koff SA. (1988) Guidelines to determine the size and shape of intestinal segments used for reconstruction. J Urol 140: 150–151.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cespedes RD, McGuire EJ. (1998) Bladder augmentation. In: Graham SD, (ed.), Glenn’s Urologic Surgery, 5th ed, Phildelphia: Lippincott-Williams & Wilkins, pp. 211–218.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Adams MC, Mitchell ME, Rink RC. (1998) Gastrocystoplasty: an alternative solution to the problem of urological reconstruction in the severely compromised patient. J Urol 140: 1152.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Goslabez R, Woodard JR, Broecker BH, et al. (1993) The use of stomach in pediatric urinary reconstruction. J Urol 150: 438–440.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nguyen DH, Bain MA, Salmonson KL, et al. (1993) The syndrome of dysuria and hematuria in pediatric urinary reconstruction with stomach. J Urol 150: 707–709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Buson H, Manivel JC, Dayane M, et al. (1994) Seromuscular colocystoplasty lined with urothelium: experimental study. Urology 44: 743–748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gonzalez R, Buson H, Reid C, et al. (1995) Seromuscular colocystoplasty lined with urothelium: experience with 16 patients. Urology 45 (1): 124–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Nguyen DH, Mitchell ME, Horowitz ME, et al. (1996) Demucosalized augmentation gastrocystoplasty with bladder autoaugmentation in pediatric patients. J Urol 156: 206–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dewan PA, Byard RW. (1993) Autoaugmentation gastrocystoplasty in a sheep model. Br J Urol 72 (1): 56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Carr MC, Docimo SG, Mitchell ME. (1999) Bladder augmentation with urothelial preservation. J Urol 162: 1133–1136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Shekarriz B, Upadhyay J, Demirbilek S, et al. (2000) Surgical complications of bladder augmentation: comparison between various enterocystoplasties in 133 patients. Urology 55: 123–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ganesan T. (2002) Vitamin B12 malabsorption following bladder reconstruction or diversion with bowel segments. Aust N Z J Surg 72: 479–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bogaert GA, Mevorach RA, Kim J, et al. (1995) The physiology of gastrocystoplasty: once a stomach, always a stomach. J Urol 153: 1977–1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rushton HG, Woodard JR, Parrot TS, et al. (1988) Delayed bladder rupture after enterocystoplasty. J Urol 140: 344–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Crane JM, Scherz HS, Billman GF, et al. (1991) Ischemic necrosis: a hypothesis to explain the pathogenesis of spontaneously ruptured enterocystoplasty. J Urol 146: 141–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bauer SB, Hendren WH, Kozakewich H, et al. (1992) Perforation of the augmented bladder. J Urol 148: 699–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Anderson PA, Rickwood AMK. (1991) Detrusor hyper-reflexia as a factor in spontaneous perforation of augmentation cystoplasty for neuropathie bladder. Br J Urol 67: 210–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Close CE. (2000) Complications of enterocystoplasty. In: Dewan P, Mitchell ME, eds., Bladder Augmentation, London: Arnold, pp. 61–70.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Shaw J, Lewis MA (1999) Bladder augmentation surgery-what about malignancy risk? Euro J Ped Surg 9 (Suppl. 1): 39–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Fernandez M, Herrerro L, Romero J, et al. (1996) Synchronous signet ring cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma arising in an augmented ileocystoplasty. Case report and review of the literature. Eur Urol 29: 125–128.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hendren WH, Hendren RB. (1990) Bladder augmentation: experience with 129 children and young adults. J Urol 144: 445–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Docimo SG, Orth CR, Schulam PG. (1998) Percutaneous cystolithotomy after cystoplasty: comparison with open procedures. Tech Urol 4: 43–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Rink RC, Adams MC, Keating MA. (1994) The flip-flap technique to lengthen the urethra (sale procedure) for treatment of neurogenic urinary incontinence. J Urol 152: 799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Young HH. (1922) An operation for the cure of incontinence associated with epispadias. J Urol 7: 1–32.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Dees JE. (1949) Congenital epispadias with incontinence. J Urol 62: 513–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Leadbetter GW. (1964) Surgical correction of total urinary incontinence. J Urol 91: 261–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sidi AA, Reinberg Y, Gonzalez R. (1987) Comparison of artificial urinary sphincter implantation and bladder neck reconstruction in patients with neuro-genic urinary incontinence. J Urol 138 (4 Pt 2): 1120–1122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Donnahoo KK, Rink RC, Cain MP, et al. (1999) The young-dees-leadbetter bladder neck repair for neurogenic incontinence. J Urol 161: 1946–1949.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Belman AB, Kaplan GW. (1989) Experience with the Kropp anti-incontinence procedure. J Urol 141: 1160–1162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Snodgrass W. (1997) A simplified Kropp procedure for incontinence. J Urol 158: 1049–1052.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Waters PR, Chehade NC, Kropp KA. (1997) Urethral lengthening and reimplantation: incidence and management of catheterization problems. J Urol 158: 1053–1056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Nill TG, Peller PA, Kropp KA. (1990) Management of urinary incontinence by bladder tube urethral lengthening and submucosal reimplantation. J Urol 144: 559–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kropp KA, Angwafo FF. (1986) Urethral lengthening and reimplantation for neurogenic incontinence in children. J Urol 135 (3): 533–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pippi Salle JL, de Fraga JC, Amarante A, et al. (1994) Urethral lengthening with anterior bladder wall flap for urinary incontinence: a new approach. J Urol 152: 803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mouriquand PD, Sheard R, Phillips N, et al. (1995) The Kropp-onlay procedure (Pippi Salle procedure): a simplification of the technique of urethral lengthening. Preliminary results in eight patients. Br J Urol 75: 656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Pippi Salle JL, Mclorie GA, Bagli DL, et al. (1997) Urethral lengthening with anterior bladder wall flap (Pippi Salle procedure): modifications and extended indications of the technique. J Urol 158: 585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lottman HB, Margaryan M, Bernuy M, et al. (2002) The effect of endoscopic injections of dextranomer based implants on continence and bladder capacity: a prospective study of 31 patients. J Urol 168: 1863–1867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Caione P, Capozza N. (2002) Endoscopic treatment of urinary incontinence in pediatric patients: 2-year experience with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer. J Urol 168: 1868–1871.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Malizia AA, Reiman HM, Myers RP, et al. (1984) Migration and granulomatous reaction after periurethral injection of polytef ( Teflon ). JAMA 251: 3277–3281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bomalaski DM, Bloom DA, Mcguire EJ, et al. (1996) Glutaraldehyde cross-linked collagen in the treatment of urinary incontinence in children. J Urol 155: 699–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kassouf W, Capolicchio G, Berardinucci G. (2001). Collagen injection for treatment of urinary incontinence in children. J Urol 165: 1666–1668.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gonzalez R, Nguyen DH, Koleilat N, et al. (1989) Compatibility of enterocystoplasty and the artificial urinary sphincter. J Urol 142: 502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Simeoni, J, Guys JM, Mollard P, et al. (1996) Artificial urinary sphincter implantation for neurogenic bladder: a multi-institutional study in 107 children. Br J Urol 78: 287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Castera R, Podesta ML, Ruarte A, et al. (2001) 10-Year experience with artificial urinary sphincter in children and adolescents. J Urol 165: 2373–2376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hafez AT, Mclorie G, Bagli D, et al. (2002) A single-centre long-term outcome analysis of artificial urinary sphincter placement in children. Br J Urol 89: 82–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Levesque PE, Bauer SB, Atala A, et al. (1996) Ten-year experience with the artificial urinary sphincter in children. J Urol 156: 625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gonzalez R, Merino FG, Vaughn M. (1995) Long-term results of the artificial urinary sphincter in male patients with neurogenic bladder. J Urol 154: 769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Singh G, Thomas DG. (1996) Artificial urinary spincter in patients with neuro-genic bladder dysfunction. Br J Urol 77: 252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Woodside JR. Borden TA. (1982) Pubovaginal sling procedure for the management of urinary incontinence in myelodysplastic girl. J Urol 127 (4): 744–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Colvert JR, Kropp BP, Cheng EY, et al. (2002) The use of small intestinal sub-mucosa as an off-the-shelf urethral sling material for pediatric urinary incontinence. J Urol 168: 1872–1876.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Gormley EA, Bloom DA, Mcguire EJ, et al. (1994) Pubovaginal slings for the management of urinary incontinence in female adolescents. J Urol 152: 822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kakizaki H, Shibato T, Shinno Y, et al. (1995) Fascial sling for the management of urinary incontinence due to sphincter incompetence. J Urol 153: 644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Perez LM, Smith EA, Broeker BH, et al. (1996) Outcome of sling cystourethropexy in the pediatric population: a critical review. J Urol 156: 642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Walker RD, Erhard M, Starling J. (2000) Long-term evaluation of rectus fascial wrap in patients with spina bifida. J Urol 164 (2); 485–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Decter RM. (1993) Use of the fascial sling for neurogenic incontinence: lessons learned. J Urol 150: 683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Lowe JB, Furness PD, Barqawi AZ. (2002) Surgical management of the neuropathic bladder. Sem Pediatr Surg 11: 120–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Tekant G, Emir H, Esenturk N, et al. (2001) Catheterisable continent urinary diversion ( Mitrofanoff principle)- clinical experience and psychological aspects. Eur J Pediatr Surg 11: 263–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    De Ganck J, Evereaert K, Van Laecke E, Oosterlinck W, Hoebeke P. (2002) A high easy-to-treat complacation rate is the price for a continent stoma. Br J Urol 90 (3): 240–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Glassman DT, Docimo SG. (2001) Concealed umbilical stoma: long-term evaluation of stornal stenosis. J Urol 166: 1028–1030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Knab K, Langhans Behrens R, Strehl AE. (2001) The neuropathic bowel in spina bifida-a cross-sectional study in 226 patients. EurJ Pediatr Surg (Supp1):S4l-S42.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lynch AC, Anthony A, Dobbs BR, Frizelle FA. (2000) Anorectal physiology following spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 38: 573–580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Shafik A, El-Sibai O, Shafik IA. (2000) Physiologic basis of digital-rectal stimulation for bowel evacuation in patients with spinal cord injury: identification of an anorectal excitatory reflex. J Spinal Cord Med 23 (4): 270–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bishop PR, Nowicki MJ. (1999) Defecation disorders in the neurologically impaired child. Pediatr Ann 28 (5): 322–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Malone PS, Ransely PG, Kiely EM. (1990) Preliminary report: the antegrade continence enema. Lancet 336: 1217–1218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Shandling B, Chait P, Mearns Ai. (1996) Percutaneous cecostomy. a new technique in the management of fecal incontinence. J Pediatr Surg 31: 534–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Duel BP, Gonzalez R. (1999) The button cecostomy for management of fecal incontinence. Pediatr Surg Int 15: 559–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sheldon CA, Minevich E, Wacksman J. (2000) Modified technique of antegrade continence enema using a stapling device. J Urol 163: 589–591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Aksnes G, Diseth TH, Helseth A, et al. (2002) Appendicostomy for antegrade enema: effects on somatic and psychosocial functioning in children with myelomeningocele. Pediatrics 109: 484–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Cadeddu JA, Docimo SG. (1999) Laprascopic-assisted continent stoma procedures: our new standard. Pediatr Urol 54 (5): 909–912.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Hedican SP, Docimo SG. (2000) Laprascopic-assisted reconstructive surgery in children. Contemp Urol 12 (10): 79–88.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Clark T, Pope J, Adams MC, Wells N, Brock JW. (2002) Factors that influence outcomes of mitranoff and malone antegrade continence enema reconstructive procedures in children. J Urol 168 (4, partl of 2): 1537–1540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Docimo SG, Moore RG, Adams J, Kavoussi LR. (1995) Laparoscopic bladder augmentation using stomach. Urology 46: 565–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Gill IS, Rackley RR, Meraney AM, et al. (2000) Laparoscopic enterocystoplasty. Urology 55 (2): 178–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Cuellar DC, Kavoussi PK, Baker LA, et al. (2000) Open laparoscopic access using a radially dilating trocar: experience and indications in 50 consecutive cases. J Endo Urol 14(9): 755, 756.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Jackman S, Weingart J, Docimo SG. (2000) Laparoscopic surgery in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts: safety and monitoring. J Urol 164: 1352–1354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Chung SY, Meldrum K, Docimo SG. (2002) Laparoscopic-assisted reconstructive surgery: functional outcomes. American Academy of Pediatrics Annual Meeting.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zachary V. Zuniga
  • Barbara V. Wise
  • Kathy Kinsman
  • Steven G. Docimo

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations