Advertisement

Combined Modality Strategies in the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer

  • Cathy Eng
  • Everett E. Vokes
Part of the Cancer Drug Discovery and Development book series (CDD&D)

Abstract

Head and neck cancer (HNC) comprises 5–6% of all malignancies (1). Approximately 650,000 cases will be diagnosed worldwide in 2000 (2). The American Cancer Society estimates that in the United States alone approx 40,300 new cases of HNC will be diagnosed annually with approx 11,700 deaths associated from this disease (1). If cured, HNC patients are at increased risk of developing a second malignancy, estimated to occur at an annual incidence of 3–7% (3). Field carcinogenesis, as initially proposed by Slaughter et al. in 1953, describes the concept of repetitive carcinogen exposure affecting the entire aerodigestive tract, resulting in cumulative toxicity to a large mucosal surface (4). S qua-mous cell carcinomas constitute >90% of the histology of head and neck carcinomas. Therefore, this chapter will focus solely on this histology type unless specified otherwise.

Keywords

Clin Oncol Neck Cancer Radiat Oncol Biol Phys Intensity Modulate Radiation Therapy Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Greenlee RT, Murray T, Bolden S, et al. Cancer statistics, 2000. CA Cancer J Clin 2000; 50: 7–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Parkin DM, Pisani P, Ferlay J. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 1999; 49: 33–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Khuri FRL, Lee JJ, Winn RJ. Interim Analysis of Randomized Chemoprevention Trial of HNSCC. Proc Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 1999; 18:A:1503.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Slaughter DP, Southwick HW, Smejkal W. “Field cancerization” in oral stratified squamous epithelium: clinical implications of multicentric origin. Cancer 1953; 6: 963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vokes EE, Weichselbaum RR, Lippman SM, et al. Head and neck cancer. NEngl JMed 1993; 328: 184–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brizel DM, Albers ME, Fisher SR, et al. Hyperfractionated irradiation with or without concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 1798–1804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Horiot JC, Le Fur R, N’Guyen T, et al. Hyperfractionation versus conventional fractionation in oropharyngeal carcinoma: final analysis of a randomized trial of the EORTC cooperative group of radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol 1992; 25: 231–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fu KK, Pajak TF, Trotti A, et al. A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) phase III randomized study to compare hyperfractionation and two variants of accelerated fractionation to standard fractionation radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas: first report of RTOG 9003. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000; 48: 7–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sinclair WK. Hydroxyurea: effects on Chinese hamster cells grown in culture. CancerRes 1967; 27: 297–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hussey DH, Abrams JP. Combined therapy in advanced head and neck cancer: hydroxyurea and radiotherapy. Prog Clin Cancer 1975; 6: 79–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Richards GJ Jr, Chambers RG. Hydroxyurea in the treatment of neoplasms of the head and neck. A resurvey. Am J Surg 1973; 126: 513–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lo TC, Wiley AL, Ansfield FJ, et al. Combined radiation therapy and 5-fluorouracil for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx: a randomized study. Am J Roentgenol 1976; 126: 229–235.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sanchiz F, Milla A, Torner J, et al. Single fraction per day versus two fractions per day versus radiochemotherapy in the treatment of head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1990; 19: 1347–1350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Browman GP, Cripps C, Hodson DI, et al. Placebo-controlled randomized trial of infusional fluorouracil during standard radiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol 1994; 12: 2648 2653.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Browman GP, Cripps C, Hodson DI. Placebo-controlled randomized trial of infusional fluorouracil during standard radiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer, Author Update. Classic Papers and Current Comments 1999; 4: 625–630.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rockwell S. Use of hypoxia-directed drugs in the therapy of solid tumors. Semin Oncol 1992; 19: 29–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Haffty BG, Son YH, Papac R, et al. Chemotherapy as an adjunct to radiation in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: results of the Yale Mitomycin Randomized Trials. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15: 268–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Haffty BG. Concurrent chemoradiation in the treatment of head and neck cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1999; 13: 719–742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Overgaard J, Hansen HS, Andersen AP, et al. Misonidazole combined with split-course radiotherapy in the treatment of invasive carcinoma of larynx and pharynx: report from the DAHANCA 2 study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1989; 16: 1065–1068.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Overgaard J, Hansen HS, Overgaard M, et al. A randomized double-blind phase III study of nimorazole as a hypoxic radiosensitizer of primary radiotherapy in supraglottic larynx and pharynx carcinoma. Results of the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Study (DAHANCA) Protocol 5–85. Radiother Oncol 1998; 46: 135–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shanta V, Krishnamurthi S. Combined bleomycin and radiotherapy in oral cancer. Clin Radiol 1980; 31: 617–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fu KK, Phillips TL, Silverberg IJ, et al. Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy with bleomycin and methotrexate for advanced inoperable head and neck cancer: update of a Northern California Oncology Group randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 1987; 5: 1410–1418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eschwege F, Sancho-Gamier H, Gerard JP, et al. Ten-year results of randomized trial comparing radiotherapy and concomitant bleomycin to radiotherapy alone in epidermoid carcinomas of the oropharynx: experience of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. NCI Monogr 1988; 6: 275–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Haselow RE, Warshaw MC, Oken MM, et al. Radiation alone versus radiation with weekly low dose cis-platinum in unresectable cancer of the head and neck. In: ( Fee WE Jr. GH, Johns ME, eds). Head and Neck Cancer. Vol. 2. Philadelphia: BC Decker, 1990: 279–281.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bachaud JM, David JM, Boussin G, et al. Combined postoperative radiotherapy and weekly cisplatin infusion for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: preliminary report of a randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1991; 20: 243–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Al-Sarraf M, Pajak TF, Marcial VA, et al. Concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy with cisplatin in inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. An RTOG Study. Cancer 1987; 59: 259–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Al-Sarraf M, Pajak TF, Cooper JS, et al. Chemo-radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a radiation therapy oncology group study. J Clin Oncol 1990; 8: 1342–1351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Al-Sarraf M, LeBlanc M, Giri PG, et al. Chemoradiotherapy versus radiotherapy in patients with advanced nasopharyngeal cancer: phase III randomized Intergroup study 0099. J Clin Oncol 1998; 16: 1310–1317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Al-Sarraf M, Metch B, Kish J, et al. Platinum analogs in recurrent and advanced head and neck cancer: a Southwest Oncology Group and Wayne State University Study. Cancer Treat Rep 1987; 71: 723–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jacobs MC, Eisenberger M, Oh MC, et al. Carboplatin (CBDCA) and radiotherapy for stage IV carcinoma of the head and neck: a phase I-II study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1989; 17: 361–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kamioner DH, E. Vallantin, X. Fourth International Congress on Anti-Cancer Chemotherapy, Paris, France, Feb 2–5, 1993.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bhalla K, Ibrado AM, Tourkina E, et al. Taxol induces internucleosomal DNA fragmentation associated with programmed cell death in human myeloid leukemia cells. Leukemia 1993; 7: 563–568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Leonard CE, Chan DC, Chou TC, et al. Paclitaxel enhances in vitro radiosensitivity of squamous carcinoma cell lines of the head and neck. Cancer Res 1996; 56: 5198–5204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Forastiere AA, Shank D, Neuberg D, et al. Final report of a phase II evaluation of paclitaxel in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trial (PA390). Cancer 1998; 82: 2270–2274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hoffmann W, Belka C, Schmidberger H, et al. Radiotherapy and concomitant weekly 1-hour infusion of paclitaxel in the treatment of head and neck cancer-results from a Phase I trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1997; 38: 691–696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Liebmann J, Cook JA, Fisher J, et al. In vitro studies of Taxol as a radiation sensitizer in human tumor cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86: 441–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rosenthal DI, Lee JH, Sinard R. Phase I study of paclitaxel given by seven-week continuous infusion concurrent with radiation therapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19: 1363–1373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sunwoo JB, Herscher LL, Kroog GS. Concurrent paclitaxel and radiation in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19: 800–811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dreyfuss AI, Clark JR, Norris CM, et al. Docetaxel: an active drug for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol 1996; 14: 1672–1678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hesse K, Heinrich B, Zimmermann F, et al. Combined radiochemotherapy with docetaxel in patients with unresectable locally advanced head and neck tumors. Strahlenther Onkol 2000; 176: 67–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shewach DS, Hahn TM, Chang E, et al. Metabolism of 2’,2’-difluoro-2’-deoxycytidine and radiation sensitization of human colon carcinoma cells. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 3218–3223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lawrence TS, Eisbruch A, McGinn CJ, et al. Radiosensitization by gemcitabine. Oncology (Huntingt) 1999; 13: 55–60.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Eisbruch A, Shewach DS, Bradford CR. Radiation concurrent with gemcitabine for locally advanced head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19: 792–799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chen AY, Choy H, Rothenberg ML. DNA topoisomerase I-targeting drugs as radiation sensitizers. Oncology (Huntingt) 1999; 13: 39–46.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chen AY, Okunieff P, Pommier Y, et al. Mammalian DNA topoisomerase I mediates the enhancement of radiation cytotoxicity by camptothecin derivatives. Cancer Res 1997; 57: 1529–1536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tamura K, Takada M, Kawase I, et al. Enhancement of tumor radio-response by irinotecan in human lung tumor xenografts. Jpn J Cancer Res 1997; 88: 218–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Koukourakis MI, Bizakis JG, Skoulakis CE, et al. Combined irinotecan, docetaxel and conventionally fractionated radiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer. A phase I dose escalation study. Anticancer Res 1999; 19: 2305–2309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Keane TJ, Cummings BJ, O’ Sullivan B, et al. A randomized trial of radiation therapy compared to split course radiation therapy combined with mitomycin C and 5 fluorouracil as initial treatment for advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1993; 25: 613–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Merlano M, Vitale V, Rosso R, et al. Treatment of advanced squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck with alternating chemotherapy and radiotherapy. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 1115–1121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Merlano M, Benasso M, Corvo R, et al. Five-year update of a randomized trial of alternating radiotherapy and chemotherapy compared with radiotherapy alone in treatment of unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996; 88: 583–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wendt TG, Grabenbauer GG, Rodel CM, et al. Simultaneous radiochemotherapy versus radiotherapy alone in advanced head and neck cancer: a randomized multicenter study. J Clin Oncol 1998; 16: 1318 1324.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Adelstein DJ, Adams GL, Li Y. A phase III comparison of standard radiation therapy (RT) versus RT plus concurrent cisplatin (DDP) versus split-course RT plus concurrent DDP and 5-fluorouracil (5FU) in patients with unresectable squamous cell head and neck cancer (SCHNC), Proc Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 2000; 19:A:1624.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Adelstein DJ, Lavertu P, Saxton JP, et al. Mature results of a phase III randomized trial comparing concurrent chemoradiotherapy with radiation therapy alone in patients with stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer 2000; 88: 876–883.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Calais G, Alfonsi M, Bardet E, et al. Randomized trial of radiation therapy versus concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy for advanced-stage oropharynx carcinoma. J Nail Cancer Inst 1999; 91: 2081–2086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Byfield JE, Calabro-Jones P, Klisak I, et al. Pharmacologic requirements for obtaining sensitization of human tumor cells in vitro to combined 5-Fluorouracil or Florafur and X rays. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1982; 8: 1923–1933.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Byfield JE, Sharp TR, Frankel SS, et al. Phase I and II trial of five-day infused 5-fluorouracil and radiation in advanced cancer of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol 1984; 2: 406–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Taylor SG, Murthy AK, Griem KL, et al. Concomitant cisplatin/5-FU infusion and radiotherapy in advanced head and neck cancer: 8-year analysis of results. Head Neck 1997; 19: 684–691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Vokes EE, Haraf DJ, Panje WR, et al. Hydroxyurea with concomitant radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer. Semin Oncol 1992; 19: 53–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Haraf DJ, Kies M, Rademaker AW, et al. Radiation therapy with concomitant hydroxyurea and fluorouracil in stage II and III head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol 1999; 17: 638–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Brockstein B, Haraf DJ, Stenson K, et al. Phase I study of concomitant chemoradiotherapy with paclitaxel, fluorouracil, and hydroxyurea with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support for patients with poor-prognosis cancer of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol 1998; 16: 735–744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kies MS, Haraf DJ, Rosen F, et al. Concomitant infusional paclitaxel and fluorouracil, oral hydroxyurea, and hyperfractionated radiation for locally advanced squamous head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19: 1961–1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Merlano M, Rosso R, Sertoli MR, et al. Sequential versus alternating chemotherapy and radiotherapy in stage III-IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a phase III study. J Clin Oncol 1988; 6: 627–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Taylor SG, Murthy AK, Vannetzel JM, et al. Randomized comparison of neoadjuvant cisplatin and fluorouracil infusion followed by radiation versus concomitant treatment in advanced head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol 1994; 12: 385–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sendler A, Schuchardt U, Waldfahrer F. A randomized study comparing intensified sequential to concomitant chemoradiotherapy for advanced hypopharyngeal cancer. Proc Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 1997; 16: A1396.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Induction chemotherapy plus radiation compared with surgery plus radiation in patients with advanced laryngeal cancer. The Department of Veterans Affairs Laryngeal Cancer Study Group. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 1685–1690.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lefebvre JL, Chevalier D, Luboinski B, et al. Larynx preservation in pyriform sinus cancer: preliminary results of a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase III trial. EORTC Head and Neck Cancer Cooperative Group. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996; 88: 890–899.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Posner MR, Glisson B, Frenette G, et al. Multicenter phase I-II trial of docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil induction chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19: 1096–1104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Vokes EE, Kies MS, Haraf DJ, et al. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy as primary therapy for locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol 2000; 18: 1652–1661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 68a.
    Forastiere A, Berkey B, Mai M, et al. Phase III trial to preserve the larynx induction chemotherapy versus concomitant chemotherapy versus radiotherapy alone inner group trial R911-M. Proc Annu Meet Soc Am Clin Oncol 2001; 20: A4.Google Scholar
  70. 69.
    Pignon JP, Bourhis J, Domenge C, et al. Chemotherapy added to locoregional treatment for head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma: three meta-analyses of updated individual data. MACH-NC Collaborative Group. Meta-Analysis of Chemotherapy on Head and Neck Cancer. Lancet 2000; 355: 949–955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Bourhis J, Pignon JP. Meta-analyses in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. What is the role of chemotherapy? Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1999; 13:769–775, vii.Google Scholar
  72. 71.
    Munro AJ. An overview of randomised controlled trials of adjuvant chemotherapy in head and neck cancer. Br J Cancer 1995; 71: 83–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Stell PM. Meta-analysis confounded. Lancet 1992; 339: 623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    El-Sayed S, Nelson N. Adjuvant and adjunctive chemotherapy in the management of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region. A meta-analysis of prospective and randomized trials. J Clin Oncol 1996; 14: 838–847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Kish JA, Weaver A, Jacobs J, et al. Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil infusion in patients with recurrent and disseminated epidermoid cancer of the head and neck. Cancer 1984; 53: 1819–1824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Schrijvers D, Johnson J, Jiminez U, et al. Phase III trial of modulation of cisplatin/fluorouracil chemotherapy by interferon alfa-2b in patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer. Head and Neck Interferon Cooperative Study Group. J Clin Oncol 1998; 16: 1054–1059.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Vermorken J, Catimel G, Mulder PD, et al. Randomized phase II trial of weekly methotrexate (MTX) versus two schedules of triweekly paclitaxel (taxol) in patients with metastatic or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Proc Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 1999; 18:A 1527.Google Scholar
  78. 77.
    Forastiere A, Leong T, Rowisky E. Phase III comparison of high-dose paclitaxel + cisplatin + granulocyte colony-stimulating factor versus low-dose paclitaxel + cisplatin in advanced head and neck cancer: eastern cooperative oncology group study E1393. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19: 1088–1095.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Murphy B, Li Y, Cella D, et al. Phase III study comparing cisplatin (C) and 5-Fluorouracil (F) versus cisplatin and paclitaxel (T) in metastatic/recurrent head and neck cancer (MHNC). Proc Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 2001; 20: A894.Google Scholar
  80. 78a.
    Eng C, Haraf D, Stenson K, et al. Phase I study of concomitant chemoradiotherapy with Gemcitabine (G) paditaxel (T) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with poor prognosis head and neck cancer patients. Lung Cancer 2001; (Suppl 34):SS50Google Scholar
  81. 79.
    Humerickhouse RA, Haraf D, Stenson K, et al. Phase I study of irinotecan (CPT-11), 5-FU, and hydroxyurea with radiation in recurrent or advanced head and neck cancer. Proc Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 2000; 19: A1650.Google Scholar
  82. 80.
    Gandia D, Wibault P, Guillot T, et al. Simultaneous chemoradiotherapy as salvage treatment in locoregional recurrences of squamous head and neck cancer. Head Neck 1993; 15: 8–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 81.
    Hartsell WF, Thomas CR, Murthy AK, et al. Pilot study for the evaluation of simultaneous cisplatin/ 5-fluorouracil infusion and limited radiation therapy in regionally recurrent head and neck cancer (EST P-C385). Am J Clin Oncol 1994; 17: 338–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 82.
    Haraf DJ, Weichselbaum RR, Vokes EE. Re-irradiation with concomitant chemotherapy of unresectable recurrent head and neck cancer: a potentially curable disease. Ann Oncol 1996; 7: 913–918.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 83.
    Spencer SA, Harris J, Wheeler RH, et al. RTOG 9610: Reirradiation with concurrent hydroxyurea and 5-fluorouracil in patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000; 51: 1299–1304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 84.
    Rowinsky EK. Novel radiation sensitizers targeting tissue hypoxia. Oncology (Huntingt) 1999; 13: 61–70.Google Scholar
  87. 85.
    Done MJ, Brown JM. Tumor-specific, schedule-dependent interaction between tirapazamine (SR 4233) and cisplatin. Cancer Res 1993; 53: 4633–4636.Google Scholar
  88. 86.
    Rishchin D, Peters L, Hicks R, et al. Phase I trial of concurrent tirapazamine, cisplatin, and radiotherapy in patients with advanced head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19: 535–542.Google Scholar
  89. 87.
    Rodeck U, Jost M, Kari C, et al. EGF-R dependent regulation of keratinocyte survival. J Cell Sci 1997; 110: 113–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 88.
    Maurizi M, Almadori G, Ferrandina G, et al. Prognostic significance of epidermal growth factor receptor in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer 1996; 74: 1253–1257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 89.
    Huang SM, Bock JM, Harari PM. Epidermal growth factor receptor blockade with C225 modulates proliferation, apoptosis, and radiosensitivity in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Cancer Res 1999; 59: 1935–1940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 90.
    Baselga J, Pfister D, Cooper MR, et al. Phase I studies of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor chimeric antibody C225 alone and in combination with cisplatin. J Clin Oncol 2000; 18: 904–914.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 90a.
    Cohen EEW, Rosen F, Dekker A, et al. Phase II study of 2D1839 (Iressa) in recurrent or metastic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Proc Annu Meet Soc Am Clin Oncol 21: A88.Google Scholar
  94. 91.
    Khuri FR, Nemunaitis J, Ganly I, et al. A controlled trial of intratumoral ONYX-015, a selectively-replicating adenovirus, in combination with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in patients with recurrent head and neck cancer. Nat Med 2000; 6: 879–885.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 92.
    Brizel DM, Wasserman TH, Henke M, et al. Phase III randomized trial of amifostine as a radioprotector in head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol, 2000; 18: 3339–3345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 93.
    Hollaender A, Stapleton GE, Martin FL, et al. X-ray sensitivity of E. coli as modified by oxygen tension. Nature 1951; 167: 103–104.Google Scholar
  97. 94.
    Fein DA, Lee WR, Hanlon AL, et al. Pretreatment hemoglobin level influences local control and survival of T1–T2 squamous cell carcinomas of the glottic larynx. J Clin Oncol 1995; 13: 2077–2083.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 95.
    Kumar P. Importance of anemia as a prognostic factor in patients with head and neck cancer. Anemia Oncol 2000; 3: 2–4.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cathy Eng
  • Everett E. Vokes

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations