Advertisement

Chemoradiotherapy in Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

  • Bruce J. Roth
Chapter
Part of the Cancer Drug Discovery and Development book series (CDD&D)

Abstract

Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder is diagnosed in approx 50,000 individuals in the United States each year, and accounts for 10,000 deaths annually. A majority of patients will present with nonmuscle-invasive disease, be treated adequately with transurethral resection (TURBT) with or without intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy, and will have only a 10–15% risk (higher for higher grades) of developing muscle-invasive disease. In contradistinction, the natural history of muscle-invasive disease is much more aggressive, with a 5-yr survival of only 50%.

Keywords

Bladder Cancer Clin Oncol Radical Cystectomy Transitional Cell Carcinoma Invasive Bladder Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Stein JP, Lieskovsky G, Cote R, et al. Radical cystectomy in the treatment of invasive bladder cancer: long-term results in 1.054 patients. J Clin Oncol 2001; 3: 666–675.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Montie JE, Straffon RA, Stewart BH. Radical cystectomy without radiation therapy for carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol 1984; 131: 477–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Skinner DG, Lieskovsky G. Contemporary cystectomy with pelvic node dissection compared to preoperative radiation therapy plus cystectomy in management of invasive bladder cancer. J Urol 1984; 131: 1069–1072.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Giuliani L, Giberti C, Martorana G, Bonamini A, Natta GD, Rovida S. Results of radical cystectomy for primary bladder cancer: retrospective study of more than 200 cases. Urology 1985; 3: 243–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pagano F, Bassi P, Galetti TP, Meneghini AM, Milani C, Artibani W, Garbeglio A. Results of contemporary radical cystectomy for invasive bladder cancer: a clinicopathological study with an emphasis on the inadequacy of the tumor, nodes and metastases classification. J Urol 1991; 145: 45–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Soloway MS, Lopez AE, Patel J, Lu Y. Results of radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and the effect of chemotherapy. Cancer 1994; 73: 1926–1931.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weijerman PC, Schurmans JR, Hop WC. Morbidity and quality of life in patients with orthotopic and heterotopic continent urinary diversion. Urology 1996; 51: 51–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hautmann RE, Miller K, Steiner U. The ileal neobladder: 6 years of experience with more than 200 patients. J Urol 1993; 150: 40–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Studer UE, Zingg EJ. Ileal orthotopic bladder substitutes: what we have learned from 12 years’ experience with 200 patients. Urol Clin North America 1997; 24: 781–793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goffinet DR, Schneider MJ, Glatstein EJ, et al. Bladder cancer: results of radiation therapy in 384 patients. Radiology 1975; 117: 149–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yu WS, Sagerman RH, Chung CT, Dalal PS, King GA. Bladder carcinoma: experience with radical and preoperative radiotherapy in 421 patients. Cancer 1985; 6: 1293–1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shipley WU, Rose MA, Perrone TL, Mannix CM, Heney NM, Prout GR. Full-dose irradiation for patients with invasive bladder carcinoma: clinical and histologic factors prognostic of improved survival. J Urol 1985; 134: 679–683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Quilty PM, Duncan W. Primary radical radiotherapy for T3 transitional cell cancer of the bladder: an analysis of survival and control. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 1986; 12: 853–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pollack A, Zagars GK, Swanson DA. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy: prognostic factors. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 1994; 2: 267–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mameghan H, Fisher R, Mameghan J, Brook S. Analysis of failure following definitive radiotherapy for invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 1995; 2: 247–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gospodarowicz MK, Hawkins NV, Rawlings GA, et al. Radical radiotherapy for muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: failure analysis. J Urol 1989; 142: 1448–1454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Greiner R, Skaleric C, Veraguth P. The prognostic significance of ureteral obstruction in carcinoma of the bladder. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 1977; 2: 1095–1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Blandy JP, England HR, Evans SJ, et al. T3 bladder cancer: the case for salvage cystectomy. Br J Urol 1980; 6: 506–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Goodman GB, Hislop TG, Elwood JM, Balfour J. Conservation of bladder function in patients with invasive bladder cancer treated by definitive irradiation and selective cystectomy. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 1981; 5: 569–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bloom HJ, Hendry WF, Wallace DM, Skeet RG. Treatment of T3 bladder cancer: controlled trial of preoperative radiotherapy and radical cystectomy versus radical cystectomy. Br J Urol 1982; 54: 136–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morrison R. The results of the treatment of cancer of the bladder–a clinical contribution to radiobiology. Clin Radiol 1975; 26: 67–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Harker WG, Meyers FJ, Freiha FS, et al. Cisplatin, methotrexate, and vinblastine (CMV): an effective chemotherapy regimen for metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract; a Northern California Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 1985; 3: 1463–1470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sternberg CN, Yagoda A, Scher HI, et al. Methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin for advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium: efficacy and patterns of response and relapse. Cancer 1989; 64: 2448–2458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Loehrer PJ, Einhorn LH, Elson PJ, et al. A randomized comparison of cisplatin alone or in combination with methotrexate, vinblastine, and doxorubicin in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma: a cooperative group study. J Clin Oncol 1992; 7: 1066–1073.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Logothetis CJ, Dexeus FH, Finn L, et al. A prospective randomized trial comparing MVAC and CISCA chemotherapy for patients with metastatic urothelial tumors. J Clin Oncol 1990; 8: 1050–1055.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gabrilove JL, Jakubowski A, Scher H, et al. Effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on neutropenia and associated morbidity due to chemotherapy for transitional-cell carcinoma of the urothelium. N Engl J Med 1988; 318: 1414–1422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Loehrer PJ, Elson P, Dreicer R, et al. Escalated dosages of methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin plus recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in advanced urothelial carcinoma: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trial. J Clin Oncol 1994; 12: 483–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Logothetis C, Finn L, Amato R, Hassan E, Sella A. Escalated MVAC +1- rhGM-CSF in metastatic transitional cell carcinoma. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1992; 11: 202.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Roth BJ, Bajorin DF. Advanced bladder cancer: the need to identify new agents in the post-M-VAC (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin) world. J Urol 1995; 153: 894–900.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Roth BJ, Dreicer R, Einhorn LH, et al. Significant activity of paclitaxel in advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium: a phase II trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (El 892). J Clin Oncol 1994; 11: 2264–2270.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Moore MJ, Tannock IF, Ernst DS, Huan S, Murray N. Gemcitabine: a promising new agent in the treatment of advanced urothelial cancer. J Clin Oncol 1997; 12: 3441–3445.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stadler WM, Kuzel T, Roth B, Raghavan D, Don FA. Phase II study of single-agent gemcitabine in previously untreated patients with metastatic urothelial cancer. J Clin Oncol 1997; 11: 3394–3398.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vaughn DJ, Malkowicz SB, Zoltick B, et al. Paclitaxel plus carboplatin in advanced carcinoma of the urothelium: an active and tolerable outpatient regimen. J Clin Oncol 1998; 1: 255–260.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Redman BG, Smith DC, Flaherty L, Du W, Hussain M. Phase II trial of paclitaxel and carboplatin in the treatment of advanced urothelial carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 1998; 5: 1844–1848.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Moore MJ, Winquist EW, Murray N, et al. Gemcitabine plus cisplatin, an active regimen in advanced urothelial cancer: a phase II trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. J Clin Oncol 1999; 9: 2876–2881.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kaufman D, Raghavan D, Carducci M, et al. Phase II trial of gemcitabine plus cisplatin in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer. J Clin Oncol 2000; 9: 1921–1927.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    von der Maase H, Hansen SW, Roberts JT, et al. Gemcitabine and cisplatin versus methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin in advanced or metastatic bladder cancer: results of a large, randomized, multinational, multicenter, phase III study. J Clin Oncol 2000; 17: 3068–3077.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shipley WU, Prout GR, Kaufman SD, Perrone TL. Invasive bladder carcinoma: the importance of initial transurethral surgery and other significant prognostic factors for improved survival with full-dose irradiation. Cancer 1987; 60: 514–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Henry K, Miller J, Mori M, Loening S, Fallon B. Comparison of transurethral resection to radical therapies for stage B bladder tumors. J Urol 1988; 140: 964–967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Solsona E, Iborra I, Ricos JV, Monros JL, Casanova J, Calabuig C. Feasibility of transurethral resection for msucle infiltrating carcinoma of the bladder: long-term follow-up of a prospective study. J Urol 1998; 159: 95–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Herr HW. Conservative management of muscle-infiltrating bladder cancer: prospective experience. J Urol 1987; 138: 1162–1163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Herr HW. Transurethral resection in regionally advanced bladder cancer. Urol Clin North Am 1992; 19: 695–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Medical Research Council Advanced Bladder Cancer Working Party. Neoadjuvant cisplatin, methotrexate, and vinblastine chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1999; 354: 533–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Thrasher JB, Frazier HA, Robertson JE, Paulson DF. Does a stage pTO cystectomy specimen confer a survival advantage in patients with minimally invasive bladder cancer? J Urol 1994; 152: 393–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kolozsy Z. Histopathological “self-control” in transurethral resection of bladder tumours. Br J Urol 1991; 67: 162–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Herr HW, Whitmore WF, Morse MJ, Sogani PC, Russo P, Fair WR. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in invasive bladder cancer: the evolving role of surgery. J Urol 1990; 144: 1083–1088.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rotman M, Macchia R, Silverstein M, et al. Treatment of advanced bladder carcinoma with irradiation and concomitant 5-fluorouracil infusion. Cancer 1987; 4: 710–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Russell KJ, Boileau MA, Ireton RC, et al. Transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: histologic clearance with combined 5-FU chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Radiology 1988; 167: 845–848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kyriazis AP, Yagoda A, Kereiakes JG. Experimental studies on the radiation-modifying effect of cisdiamminedichloroplatinum II (DDP) in human bladder transitional cell carcinomas grown in nude mice. Cancer 1983; 52: 452–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nag S, Blatnik A, Soloway M. Enhancement of high intensity iodine-125 brachytherapy by cis-platinum in a murine bladder tumor model. J Urol 1984; 131: 1225–1228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Herr HW, Yagoda A, Batata M, Sogani PC, Whitmore WF. Planned preoperative cisplatin and radiation therapy for locally advanced bladder cancer. Cancer 1983; 52: 2205–2208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shipley WU, Coombs LJ, Einstein AB, Soloway MS, Wajsman Z, Prout GR. Cisplatin and full dose irradiation for patients with invasive bladder cancer: a preliminary report of tolerance and local response. J Urol 1984; 132: 899–903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jakse G, Frommhold H, Nedden DZ. Combined radiation and chemotherapy for locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Cancer 1985; 55: 1659–1664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sauer R, Schrott KM, Dunst J, Thiel H-J, Hermanek P, Bornhof C. Preliminary results of treatment of invasive bladder carcinoma with radiotherapy and cisplatin. Int J Radiation Oncology Biol Phys 1988; 15: 871–875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sauer R, Dunst J, Altendorf-Hofmann A. Radiotherapy with and without cisplatin in bladder cancer. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 1990; 19: 687–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dunst J, Sauer R, Schrott KM. Organ-sparing treatment of advanced bladder cancer: a 10-year experience. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 1994; 30: 261–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chauvet B, Brewer Y, Felix-Faure C, Davin J-L, Choquenet C, Reboul F. Concurrent cisplatin and radiotherapy for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who are not candidates for radical cystectomy. J Urol 1996; 156: 1258–1262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Coppin CML, Gospodarowicz MK, James K. Improved local control of invasive bladder cancer by concurrent cisplatin and preoperative or definitive radiation. J Clin Oncol 1996; 11: 2901–2907.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Housset M, Maulard C, Chretien Y, et al. Combined radiation and chemotherapy for invasive transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder: a prospective study. J Clin Oncol 1993; 11: 2150–2157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wajsman Z, Marino R, Parsons J, Oblon D, McCarley D. Bladder-sparing approach in the treatment of invasive bladder cancer. Sem Urology 1990; 3: 210–215.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Farah R, Chodak GW, Vogelzang NJ, et al. Curative radiotherapy following chemotherapy for invasive bladder carcinoma (a preliminary report). Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 1991; 20: 413–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Vikram B, Malamud S, Silverman P, Hecht H, Grabstald H. A pilot study of chemotherapy alternating with twice-a-day accelerated radiation therapy as an alternative to cystectomy in muscle infiltrating (stages T2 and T3) cancer of the bladder: preliminary results. J Urol 1994; 151: 602–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Angulo JC, Sanchez-Chapado M, Lopez JI, Flores N. Primary cisplatin, methotrexate and viblastine aiming at bladder preservation in invasive bladder cancer: multivariate analysis on prognostic factors. J Urol 1996; 155: 1897–1902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Serretta V, Lo Greco G, Pavone C, Pavone-Macaluso M. The fate of patients with locally advanced bladder cancer treated conservatively with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, extensive transurethral resection and radiotherapy: 10-year experience. J Urol 1998; 139: 1187–1191.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Herr HW, Bajorin DF, Scher HI. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and bladder-sparing surgery for invasive bladder cancer: ten-year outcome. J Clin Oncol 1998; 4: 1298–1301.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Fung CE, Shipley WU, Young RH, et al. Prognostic factors in invasive bladder carcinoma in a prospective trial of preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. J Clin Oncol 1991; 9: 1533–1542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kaufman DS, Shipley WU, Griffin PP, Heney NM, Althausen AF, Efird JT. Selective bladder preservation by combination treatment of invasive bladder cancer. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 1377–1382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tester W, Caplan R, Heaney J. Neoadjuvant combined modality program with selective organ preservation for invasive bladder cancer: results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group phase II trial 8802. J Clin Oncol 1996; 1: 119–126.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Shipley WU, Winter KA, Kaufman DS. Phase III trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with invasive bladder cancer treated with selective bladder preservation. J Clin Oncol 1998; 11: 3576–3583.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Martinez-Pineiro J, Martin MG, Arocena F, et al. Neoadjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy before radical cystectomy in invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a prospective randomized phase III study. J Urol 1995; 153: 964–973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Canobbio L, Curotto A, Boccardo F, et al. A randomized study between neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy before radical cystectomy and cystectomy alone in bladder cancer. A 6 years follow-up. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1995; 14: 245.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ghersi D, Stewart LA, Parmar MKB, et al. Does neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy improve the survival of patients with locally advanced bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized clinical trials. Br J Urol 1995; 75: 206–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cortesi E. Neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced bladder cancer: a randomized prospective clinical trial. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1995; 14: 237.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruce J. Roth

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations