The appropriate local management of breast cancer has been a subject of controversy since the inception of breast surgery. The failure of radical surgery to cure many patients with breast cancer has resulted in a close examination of surgical procedures used to treat the disease as well as intense investigation of the disease itself. Over time, a new paradigm evolved for the treatment of breast cancer. This new thinking revolves around the systemic nature of breast cancer at the time of diagnosis. Appropriately, the procedures utilized by surgeons in the treatment of breast cancer have evolved in parallel with these changing concepts. From the mid-1990s onward, most patients with early invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ have been treated with breast-conserving therapy (BCT) (1,2). This change has come about slowly and was caused not only by the results of randomized trials but also by changes in our perception of the biology of breast cancer, the detection of smaller tumors, an increased understanding of radiotherapy, more use of systemic therapy, and the recognition of the importance of patient involvement in decision making. Mastectomy may no longer be considered the gold standard, but it still represents an important modality in the modern treatment of breast cancer patients.
KeywordsBreast Reconstruction Axillary Dissection Radical Mastectomy Pectoralis Major Muscle Total Mastectomy
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