There was an increase of more than 4% per year in breast cancer incidence between 1980 and 1987 in the United States. This increase was characterized by more frequent detection of early-stage cancers with small primary lesions. At the same time, incidence rates for regional metastatic disease dropped. Because of this, lumpectomy with or without axillary dissection is more frequently being utilized as definitive surgical therapy.
KeywordsBreast Cancer Sentinel Node Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Axillary Lymph Node Dissection Core Needle Biopsy
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- American Joint Committee on Cancer (1997) Manual for Staging of Cancer,5th ed. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
- Bland KI, Chang HR, Copeland EM (1998) Modified radical mastectomy and total (simple) mastectomy. In: Bland KI, Copeland EM (eds.) The Breast: Comprehensive Management of Benign and Malignant Diseases. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 881–912.Google Scholar
- Fisher B, Anderson S, Redmond CK, Wolmark N, Wickerham DL, Cronin WM (1995) Reanalysis and results after 12 years of follow-up in a randomized clinical trial comparing total mastectomy with lumpectomy with or without irradiation in the treatment of breast cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 333, 1456–1461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kern KA (1998) The delayed diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer. In: Bland KI, Copeland EM (eds.) The Breast: Comprehensive Management of Benign and Malignant Diseases. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 1588–1631.Google Scholar
- National Comprehensive Cancer Network (1999) Oncology practice guidelines. Oncology 13, 187–212.Google Scholar