Effect of Diabetes on Endothelial Function

  • Keiko Naruse
  • George L. King
Part of the Contemporary Cardiology book series (CONCARD)


Complications of diabetes occur in many tissues, including retina, renal glomeruli, nerves, vasculature, heart, skin, and others, involving both micro-and macrovascular tissues. After the discovery of insulin in 1921, the major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients became cardiovascular complications (1–3). The incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with diabetes or insulin resistance syndrome is increased in diabetic patients age older than 30 years (4–5). The Framingham Study, which surveyed longitudinally over 5000 patients with 18 years of follow-up, indicated that major clinical manifestations of CAD were increased in diabetic patients, especially in women. The risk of CAD increases with duration, reflecting the effect of the aging process, whereas in diabetic patients, both aging and duration of diabetes increased the risk of cardiac mortality: more than 50% of mortality in diabetic patients is related to cardiovascular disease. The incidence of cardiac or cerebrovascular disease is two to four times higher in diabetic patients than in the general population.


Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Aldose Reductase Polyol Pathway Aldose Reductase Inhibitor Retinal Blood Flow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keiko Naruse
  • George L. King

There are no affiliations available

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