Older Adults

  • Rachael Spalding
  • Emma Katz
  • Barry EdelsteinEmail author


Older adults are one of the fastest growing segments of the US population. In 2016, more than 48 million people over age 65 lived in the country, accounting for over 15% of the population and representing a 30% increase since 2005 (Administration on Aging, 2016a, 2016b; United States Census, 2016). Moreover, by 2060, the number of adults living in the USA who are over age 65 is expected to double, reaching an anticipated 98 million (Administration on Aging, 2016a, 2016b). This growth is due in large part to increases in ethnic minority populations. Since 2005, racial and ethnic minority populations in the country have increased from 6.7 million to over 11 million, with projections estimating an increase to 21 million by 2030 (Administration on Aging, 2016a, 2016b). Individuals of racial or ethnic backgrounds make up a significant portion of the total population over age 65; in 2015, 22% of older adults identified as an ethnicity other than “White,” with the highest proportions being African-American (not Hispanic) or Hispanic (Administration on Aging, 2016a, 2016b). When working with older adults, clinicians must be sensitive to the increasingly heterogeneous nature of this population, a point which will be further discussed in this chapter.


Aging Older adults Assessment Interviewing 


  1. Administration on Aging. (2016a). Older Americans: Key indicators of well-being. Retrieved from
  2. Administration on Aging. (2016b). Profile on older Americans. Retrieved from
  3. Alexopoulos, G. S. (2005). Depression in the elderly. Lancet, 365, 1961–1970.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  5. Balsis, S., Gleason, M. E. J., & Woods, C. M. (2007). An item response theory analysis of DSM-IV personality disorder criteria across younger and older age groups. Psychology and Aging, 22, 171–185.Google Scholar
  6. Balsis, S., Woods, C. M., Gleason, M. E., & Oltmanns, T. F. (2007). Overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis of personality disorders in older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15(9), 742–753.Google Scholar
  7. Barbour, K. E., Helmick, C. G., Theis, K. A., Murphy, L. B., Hootman, J. M., Brady, T. J., & Cheng, Y. J. (2013). Prevalence of doctor-diagnosed arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitation—United States. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 62(44), 869–873.Google Scholar
  8. Beaudreau, S. A., & O’Hara, R. (2009). The association of anxiety and depression symptoms with cognitive performance in community-dwelling older adults. Psychology and Aging, 23(3), 507–512.Google Scholar
  9. Bennett, S., & Thomas, A. J. (2014). Depression and dementia: cause, consequence or coincidence? Maturitas, 79(2), 184–190.Google Scholar
  10. Blazer, D. (2015). The psychiatric interview of older adults. In D. C. Steffens, D. G. Blazer, & M. E. Thakur (Eds.), The American psychiatric publishing textbook of geriatric psychiatry (pp. 89–107). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  11. Borson, S., Scanlan, J., Brush, M., Vitaliano, P., & Dokmak, A. (2000). The Mini-Cog: a cognitive “vital signs” measure for dementia screening in multi-lingual elderly. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 1021–1027.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (2014). Anxiety and related disorders interview schedule for DSM-5. N (ADIS-5)—adult and lifetime version. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Butler, R. N. (1969). Age-ism: Another form of bigotry. The Gerontologist, 9(4, Pt. 1), 243–246.Google Scholar
  14. Byers, A. L., Arean, P. A., & Yaffe, K. (2012). Low use of mental health services among older Americans with mood and anxiety disorders. Psychiatric Services, 63(1), 66–72.Google Scholar
  15. Center for Disease Control. (2013). The state of aging and health in America. Retrieved from
  16. Chen, C.-M., Lee, I.-C., Su, Y.-Y., Mullan, J., & Chiu, H.-C. (2017). The longitudinal relationship between mental health disorders and chronic disease for older adults: a population-based study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 32(9), 1017–1026.Google Scholar
  17. Conner, S., & Solomon, S. (2017). Psychiatric manifestations of endocrine disorders. HSOA Journal of Human Endocrinology, 2, 2–7.Google Scholar
  18. Cooper, C., Tandy, A. R., Balamurali, T. B., & Livingston, G. (2010). A systematic review and meta-analysis of ethnic differences in use of dementia treatment, care, and research. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18(3), 193–203.Google Scholar
  19. Cordell, C. B., Borson, S., Boustani, M., Chodosh, J., Reuben, J., Verghese, J., … Fried, L. B. (2013). Alzheimer’s Association recommendations for operationalizing the detection of cognitive impairment during the Medicare Annual Wellness Visit in a primary care setting. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 9(2), 141–150.Google Scholar
  20. De Paula, J. J., Bicalho, M. A., Avila, R. T., Cintra, M. T. G., Diniz, B. S., Romano-Silva, M. A., & Malloy-Diniz, L. F. (2016). A reanalysis of cognitive-functional performance in older adults: Investigating the interaction between normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, mild Alzheimer’s disease dementia, and depression. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 2061–2065.Google Scholar
  21. Derouesne, C., Rapin, J. R., & Lacomblez, L. (2004). Memory complaints in 200 subjects meeting the diagnostic criteria for age-associated memory impairment: Psychoaffective and cognitive correlates. Psychologie & Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement, 2(1), 67–74.Google Scholar
  22. Diniz, B. S., Butters, M. A., Albert, S. M., Dew, M. A., & Reynolds, C. F., III. (2013). Late-life depression and risk of vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis of community-based cohort studies. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 202, 329–335.Google Scholar
  23. Dong, X. (2014). Elder abuse: Research, practice, and health policy. The 2012 GSA Maxwell Pollack award lecture. The Gerontologist, 54(2), 153–162.Google Scholar
  24. Dunlop, D. D., Manheim, L. M., Song, J., & Chang, R. W. (2002). Gender and ethnic/racial disparities in health care utilization among older adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 57(4), S221–S233.Google Scholar
  25. Dwyer, L., Han, B., Woodwell, D., & Rechtsteiner, E. A. (2009). Polypharmacy in nursing home residents in the United States: Results of the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey. The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, 8, 63–72.Google Scholar
  26. Edelstein, B., Koven, L., Spira, A., & Shreve-Neiger, A. (2003). Older adults. In M. Hersen & S. Turner (Eds.), Diagnostic interviewing (3rd ed., pp. 433–455). New York, NY: Kluwer/Plenum.Google Scholar
  27. Edelstein, B. A., Bamonti, P. M., Gregg, J. J., & Gerolimatos, L. A. (2015). Depression in late life. In P. A. Lichtenberg & B. T. Mast (Eds.), APA handbook of clinical geropsychology: Vol 2. Assessment, treatment, and issues of later life. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  28. Edelstein, B. A., Woodhead, E. L., Segal, D. L., Heisel, M. J., Bower, E. H., Lowery, A. J., & Stoner, S. A. (2007). Older adult psychological assessment: Current instrument status and related considerations. Clinical Gerontologist, 31(3), 1–35.Google Scholar
  29. Edelstein, B. A., Heisel, M. J., McKee, D. R., Martin, R. R., Koven, L. P., Duberstein, P. R., & Britton, P. C. (2009). Development and psychometric evaluation of the reasons for living–older adults scale: A suicide risk assessment inventory. The Gerontologist, 49, 736–745.Google Scholar
  30. Federal Interagency Forum on Aging Related Statistics. (2012). Older Americans 2012: Key indicators of well-being. Retrieved from
  31. First, M. B., Williams, J. B. W., Karg, R. S., & Spitzer, R. L. (2015). Structured clinical interview for DSM-5 disorders, clinician version (SCID-5-CV). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  32. Fiske, A., Kasl-Godley, J. E., & Gatz, M. (1988). Mood disorders in late life. In B. Edelstein (Ed.), Comprehensive clinical psychology, Volume 7, Clinical geropsychology (pp. 193–229). Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science Ltd.Google Scholar
  33. Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., White, T., & Messer, M. A. (2010). Mini-mental state examination: Users manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  34. Fountoulakis, K. N., O’Hara, R., Iacovides, A., Camilleri, C. P., Kaprinis, S., Kaprinis, G., & Yesavage, J. (2003). Unipolar late-onset depression: A comprehensive review. Annals of General Hospital Psychiatry, 2(1), 11.Google Scholar
  35. Furr, R. M. (2017). Psychometrics: An introduction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  36. Gara, M. A., Vega, W. A., Arndt, S., Escamilla, M., Fleck, D. E., Lawson, W. B., & Strakowski, S. M. (2012). Influence of client race and ethnicity on clinical assessment in clients with affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(6), 593–600.Google Scholar
  37. Gerolimatos, L., Gregg, J., & Edelstein, B. (2015). Interviewing older adults. In N. Pachana & K. Laidlaw (Eds.), Oxford handbook of geropsychology (pp. 163–183). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Gerontological Society of America. (2018). OTC medications and older adults. Retrieved from
  39. Goodglass, H., & Kaplan, E. (1983). Boston diagnostic aphasia examination booklet. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger.Google Scholar
  40. Gould, C. E., Kok, B. C., Vanessa, K., & Edelstein, B. A. (in press). Clinical assessment of late-life anxiety. In G. J. Byrne & N. A. Pachana (Eds.), Anxiety in older people: Clinical and research perspectives. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Groth-Marnat, G., & Wright, A. J. (2016). Handbook of psychological assessment (6th ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  42. Hajjar, E., Hanlon, J. T., Sloane, R. J., Lindblad, C. I., Pieper, C. F., Ruby, C. M., … Schmader, K. E. (2005). Unnecessary drug use in frail older people at hospital discharge. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53, 1518–1523.Google Scholar
  43. Harada, C. N., Natelson Love, M. C., & Triebel, K. (2013). Normal cognitive aging. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 29(4), 737–752.Google Scholar
  44. Haralambous, B., Tinney, J., LoGiudice, D., Lee, S. M., & Lin, X. (2017). Interpreter-mediated cognitive assessments: who wins and who loses? Clinical Gerontologist, 41(3), 227–236.Google Scholar
  45. Haynes, S. N., O’Brien, W., & Kaholokula, J. (2011). Behavioral assessment and case formulation. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  46. Hegeman, J. M., Kok, R. M., Van der Mast, R. C., & Giltay, E. J. (2012). Phenomenology of depression in older compared with younger adults: meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 200(4), 275–281.Google Scholar
  47. Heisel, M. J., & Flett, G. L. (2006). The development and initial validation of the geriatric suicide ideation scale. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14(9), 742–751.Google Scholar
  48. Hood, S., & Amir, S. (2017). The aging clock: Circadian rhythms and later life. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 127(2), 437–336.Google Scholar
  49. Hybels, C., Landerman, L. R., & Blazer, D. G. (2012). Age differences in symptom expression in clients with major depression. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27(6), 601–611.Google Scholar
  50. Inouye, S., & Charpentier, P. A. (1996). Precipitating factors for delirium in hospitalized elderly persons. Journal of the American Medical Association, 275(11), 852.Google Scholar
  51. Inouye, S. K., Westendorp, R. G., & Saczynski, J. S. (2014). Delirium in elderly people. Lancet, 383(9920), 911–922.Google Scholar
  52. Insel, K. C., & Badger, T. A. (2002). Deciphering the 4 D’s: cognitive decline, delirium, depression and dementia–a review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 38(4), 360–368.Google Scholar
  53. Ivey, D. C., Wieling, E., & Harris, S. M. (2000). Save the young—the elderly have lived their lives: Ageism in marriage and family therapy. Family Process, 39, 163–175.Google Scholar
  54. James, J. W., & Haley, W. E. (1995). Age and health bias in practicing clinical psychologists. Psychology and Aging, 10, 610–616.Google Scholar
  55. Jang, Y., & Chiriboga, D. A. (2011). Social activity and depressive symptoms in Korean American older adults: The conditioning role of acculturation. Journal of Aging and Health, 23(5), 767–781.Google Scholar
  56. Joffe, R. T., Pearce, E. N., Hennessey, J. V., Ryan, J. J., & Stern, R. A. (2013). Subclinical hypothyroidism, mood, and cognition in older adults: a review. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(2), 111–118.Google Scholar
  57. Joiner, T. E., Walker, R. L., Rudd, M. D., & Jobes, D. A. (1999). Scientizing and routinizing the assessment of suicidality in outpatient practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30, 447–453.Google Scholar
  58. Kessler, E. M., Agines, S., & Bowen, C. E. (2014). Attitudes towards seeking mental health services among older adults: personal and contextual correlates. Aging & Mental Health, 19(2), 182–191.Google Scholar
  59. Krebber, A. M. H., Buffart, L. M., Kleijn, G., Riepma, I. C., Bree, R., Leemans, C. R., & Verdonck-de Leeuw, I. M. (2014). Prevalence of depression in cancer clients: a meta-analysis of diagnostic interviews and self-report instruments. Psycho-Oncology, 23(2), 121–130.Google Scholar
  60. Kwag, K. H., Jang, Y., & Chiriboga, D. A. (2012). Acculturation and depressive symptoms in Hispanic older adults: Does perceived ethnic density moderate their relationship? Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 14(6), 1107–1111.Google Scholar
  61. Laborde-Lahoz, P., El-Gabalawy, R., Kinley, J., Kirwin, P. D., Sareen, J., & Pietrzak, R. H. (2014). Subsyndromal depression among older adults in the USA: prevalence, comorbidity, and risk for new-onset psychiatric disorders in late life. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 30(7), 677–685.Google Scholar
  62. Langa, K. M., Larson, E. B., Crimmins, E. M., Faul, J. D., Levine, D. A., … Weir, D. R. (2012). A comparison of the prevalence of dementia in the United States in 2000 and 2012. Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine, 177(1), 51–58.Google Scholar
  63. Laukka, E. J., Dykiert, D., Allerhand, M., Starr, J. M., & Deary, I. J. (2018). Effects of between-person differences and within-person changes in symptoms of anxiety and depression in older age cognitive performance. Psychological Medicine, 48, 1350–1358.Google Scholar
  64. Lawton, M. P., Kleban, M. H., & Dean, J. (1993). Affect and age: Cross sectional comparisons of structure and prevalence. Psychology and Aging, 8, 165–175.Google Scholar
  65. Levy, S. R., & Macdonald, J. L. (2016). Progress on understanding ageism. Journal of Social Issues, 72(1), 5–25.Google Scholar
  66. Luo, L., & Craik, F. I. M. (2008). Aging and memory: A cognitive approach. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 53, 346–353.Google Scholar
  67. Lutz, J., Edelstein, B., Katz, E., & Gallegos, J. V. (2018). A shortened version of the reasons for living—older adults scale for clinical and research utility. The Gerontologist. Retrieved from
  68. Mackenzie, C. S., Gekoski, W. L., & Knox, V. J. (2006). Age, gender, and the underutilization of mental health services: The influence of help-seeking attitudes. Aging and Mental Health, 10(6), 574–582.Google Scholar
  69. Marsh, L. (2013). Depression and Parkinson’s disease: Current knowledge. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 13(12), 409.Google Scholar
  70. Matcham, F., Rayner, L., Steer, S., & Hotopf, M. (2013). The prevalence of depression in rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Rheumatology, 52(12), 2136–2148.Google Scholar
  71. May, C. P., Hasher, L., & Stoltzfus, E. R. (1993). Optimal time of day and the magnitude of age differences in memory. Psychological Science, 4, 326–330.Google Scholar
  72. Meyer, G. J., Fionn, S. E., Eude, L. D., Kay, G. G., Moreland, K. L., Dies, R. R., … Read, G. M. (2001). Psychological testing and psychological assessment: A review of evidence and issues. American Psychologist, 56(2), 128–165.Google Scholar
  73. Miller, J. W., Harvey, D. J., Beckett, L. A., Green, R., Farias, S. T., Reed, B. R., & DeCarli, C. (2015). Vitamin D status and rates of cognitive decline in a multiethnic cohort of older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association Neurology, 72(11), 1295–1303.Google Scholar
  74. Mitchell, A. J., & Shiri‐Feshki, M. (2009). Rate of progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia–meta‐analysis of 41 robust inception cohort studies. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 119(4), 252–265.Google Scholar
  75. Mohlman, J., Bryant, C., Lenze, E., Stanley, M. A., Gum, A., Flint, A., … Craske, M. G. (2011). Improving recognition of late life anxiety disorders in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition: Observations and recommendations of the Advisory Committee to the Lifespan Disorders Work Group. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27, 549–556.Google Scholar
  76. Mohlman, J., Sirota, K. G., Papp, L. A., Staples, A. M., King, A., & Gorenstein, E. E. (2012). Clinical interviewing with older adults. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 19, 89–100.Google Scholar
  77. Morimoto, S. S., Kanellopolous, D., & Alexopoulos, G. S. (2014). Cognitive impairment in older adults: Implications for prognosis and treatment. Psychiatric Annals, 44(3), 138–142.Google Scholar
  78. Nam, S., Chesla, C., Stotts, N. A., Kroon, L., & Janson, S. L. (2011). Barriers to diabetes management: Patient and provider factors. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 93(1), 1–9.Google Scholar
  79. Nasreddine, Z. S., Phillips, N. A., Bedirian, V., Charbonneau, S., Whitehead, V., Collin, I., … Chertkow, H. (2005). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: A brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 53(4), 695–699.Google Scholar
  80. National Eye Institute. (2018). Cataracts. Retrieved from
  81. NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center (2016). National Institutes of Health.
  82. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. (2018). Retrieved from
  83. North, M. S., & Fiske, S. T. (2012). An inconvenienced youth? Ageism and its potential intergenerational roots. Psychological Bulletin, 138(5), 982.Google Scholar
  84. Owsley, C. (2016). Vision and aging. Annual Review of Vision Science, 2, 255–271. Retrieved from Scholar
  85. Park, D. C., Lautenschlager, G., Hedden, T., Davidson, N. S., Smith, A. D., & Smith, P. (2002). Models of visuospatial and verbal memory across the adult life span. Psychology and Aging, 17, 299–320.Google Scholar
  86. Phillips, M. R. (2016). Would the use of dimensional measures improve the utility of psychiatric diagnoses? World Psychiatry, 15(1), 38–39.Google Scholar
  87. Prediger, R. D., Matheus, F. C., Schwarzbold, M. L., Lima, M. M., & Vital, M. A. (2012). Anxiety in Parkinson’s disease: a critical review of experimental and clinical studies. Neuropharmacology, 62(1), 115–124.Google Scholar
  88. Qato, D. M., Alexander, G. C., Conti, R., Johnson, M., Schumm, P., & Lindau, S. T. (2008). Use of prescription and over-the-counter medications and dietary supplements among older adults in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 300, 2867–2878.Google Scholar
  89. Quan, H., Arboleda-Flórez, J., Fick, G. H., Stuart, H. L., & Love, E. J. (2002). Association between physical illness and suicide among the elderly. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 37(4), 190–197.Google Scholar
  90. Rettew, D. G., Lynch, A. D., Achenbach, T. M., Dumenci, L., & Ivanova, M. Y. (2009). Meta-analyses of agreement between diagnoses made from clinical evaluations and standardized diagnostic interviews. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 18(3), 169–184.Google Scholar
  91. Robb, C., Haley, W. E., Becker, M. A., Polivka, L. A., & Chwa, H. J. (2003). Attitudes towards mental health care in younger and older adults: Similarities and differences. Aging & Mental Health, 7(2), 142–152.Google Scholar
  92. Saha, S., Komaromy, M., Koepsell, T.D., & Bindman, A.B. (1999). Patient-physician racial concordance & the perceived quality & use of health care. Archives of Internal Medicine, 59(9), 997–1004.Google Scholar
  93. Schmidt, C., Fabienne, C., Cajochen, C., & Peigneux, P. (2007). A time to think: Circadian rhythms in human cognition. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 24, 755–789.Google Scholar
  94. Segal, D. L., & Williams, K. N. (2014). Structured and semistructured interviews for differential diagnosis: Fundamental issues, applications, and features. In D. C. Beidel, B. C. Frueh, & M. Hersen (Eds.), Adult psychopathology and diagnosis (7th ed., pp. 103–129). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  95. Shapiro, A. M., Benedict, R. H., Schretlen, D., & Brandt, J. (1999). Construct and concurrent validity of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test–revised. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 13(3), 348–358.Google Scholar
  96. Sheehan, D. V., Lecrubie, Y., Sheehan, K. H., Amorim, P., Janavs, J., Weille, E., … Dunbar, G. C. (1998). The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59. (Suppl 20, 22–33.Google Scholar
  97. Smith, B. D., Smith, G. L., Hurria, A., Hortobagyi, G. N., & Buchholz, T. A. (2009). Future of cancer incidence in the United States: Burdens upon an aging, changing nation. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 27(17), 2758–2765.Google Scholar
  98. Starkman, M. N. (2013). Neuropsychiatric findings in Cushing’s syndrome and exogenous glucocorticoid administration. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, 42, 477–488.Google Scholar
  99. Stover, P. J. (2010). Vitamin B12 and older adults. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 13(1), 24.Google Scholar
  100. Sturges, M., Cannell, J. J., & Grant, W. B. (2017, September). Health condition: Vitamin D and cognitive impairment. The Vitamin D Council Blog & Newsletter.Google Scholar
  101. Taché, S. V., Sonnichsen, A., & Ashcroft, D. M. (2011). Prevalence of adverse drug events in ambulatory care: A systematic review. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 45, 977–989.Google Scholar
  102. Tait, R. C., & Chibnall, J. T. (2014). Racial/ethnic disparities in the assessment and treatment of pain: Psychosocial perspectives. American Psychologist, 69(2), 131.Google Scholar
  103. Tinetti, M. E., Fried, R. R., & Boyd, C. M. (2012). Designing health care for the most common chronic condition—multimorbidity. Journal of the American Medical Association, 307, 2493–2494.Google Scholar
  104. Van Orden, K., & Conwell, Y. (2011). Suicide in late life. Current Psychiatry Reports, 13(3), 234–241.Google Scholar
  105. Wang, P. S., Lane, M., Olfson, M., Pincus, H. A., Wells, K. B., & Kessler, R. C. (2005). Twelve-month use of mental health services in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 629–640.Google Scholar
  106. Wetherell, J. L., Reynolds, C. A., Gatz, M., & Pedersen, N. L. (2002). Anxiety, cognitive performance, and cognitive decline in normal aging. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 57(3), P246–P255.Google Scholar
  107. Wilkins, C. H., Sheline, Y. I., Roe, C. M., Birge, S. J., & Morris, J. C. (2006). Vitamin D deficiency is associated with low mood and worse cognitive performance in older adults. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14(12), 1032–1040.Google Scholar
  108. Wirdefeldt, K., Adami, H. O., Cole, P., Trichopoulos, D., & Mandel, J. (2011). Epidemiology and etiology of Parkinson’s disease: A review of the evidence. European Journal of Epidemiology, 26(1), 1–58.Google Scholar
  109. Witten, T. M., & Eyler, A. E. (Eds.). (2012). Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender aging: Challenges in research, practice, and policy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  110. Wong, G., & Baden, A. L. (2001). Multicultural sensitive assessment with older adults: Recommendations and areas for additional study. In L. A. Suzuki, P. J. Meller, & P. G. Ponerotto (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural assessment: Clinical, psychological, and educational applications (2nd ed., pp. 497–522). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  111. World Health Organization. (2014). Preventing suicide: A global perspective. Retrieved from
  112. World Health Organization. (2017). Depression and other common mental disorders global health estimates. Retrieved from
  113. World Health Organization. (2018). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (10th revision). Retrieved from
  114. Yesavage, J. A., Brink, T. L., Rose, T. L., Lum, O., Huang, V., Adey, M., & Leirer, V. O. (1983). Development and validation of a screening scale for geriatric depression: A preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17(1), 37–49.Google Scholar
  115. Yoon, C., May, C. P., & Hasher, L. (1999). Aging, circadian arousal patterns, and cognition. In Cognition, aging, and self-reports (pp. 117–143). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  116. Zhang, D. M., Ye, J. X., Mu, J. S., & Cui, X. P. (2017). Efficacy of vitamin B supplementation on cognition in elderly patients with cognitive-related diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 30(1), 50–59.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.West Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA

Personalised recommendations