Advertisement

Amenorrhea in the Adolescent

  • John S. Rinehart
Chapter

Abstract

Amenorrhea in the adolescent presents a complicated diagnostic problem for a gynecologist since the etiologies are numerous, the frequency is low, and the treatments are varied. Organizing the approach into a simplified, easily remembered sequence can allow a gynecologist to adequately initiate the diagnostic pathway that leads to successful definition of the etiology and the correct treatment for amenorrhea. This brief chapter is designed to provide the gynecologist with a simple approach that will allow the physician to appropriately approach the adolescent patient with amenorrhea.

Keywords

Amenorrhea Adolescent Ovaries Outflow tract Mullerian anomalies Anorexia nervosa Bulimia Exercise triad 

References

  1. 1.
    Speroff L, Fritz MA. Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins; 2005. p. 402. Ch.10.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berman JM. Intrauterine adhesions. Semin Reprod Med. 2008;26:349–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marcel K, Camborieux L, Programe de Recherches sur Jes Aplasies Mulleriannnes (PRAM), Guerrier D. Mayer Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2007;2:12–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Strubbe EH, Willemsen WN, Lemmens JA, Thijn JA, Rolland R. Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome: distinction between two forms based on excretory urographic, sonographic, and laparoscopic findings. Am J Roentgenol. 1993;160:331–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morris JM. The syndrome of feminization in male pseudohermaphrodites. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1953;65:1192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Galani A, Kitsiou-Tzeli S, Sofokleous C, Kanavakis E, Kalpini-Mavrou A. Androgen insensitivity syndrome: clinical features and molecular defects. Hormones. 2008;7:217–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Oakes MB, Eyvazzadeh AD, Quint E. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome- a review. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2008;21:305–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rossi B, Sukalich S, Droz J, Griffin A, Cook S, Blumkin A, Guzick D, Hoeger KM. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related characteristics in obese adolescents with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrine Metab. 2008;93:4780–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    The Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM- Sponsored PCOS consensus workshop group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Hum Reprod. 2004;19:41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Driscoll DA. Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;997:49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cool S, Auinger P, Li C, Ford ES. Metabolic syndrome rates in United States adolescents, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002. J Pediatr. 2008;152:165–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rachmiel M, Kives S, Atenafu E, Hamilton J. Primary amenorrhea as a manifestation of polycystic ovarian syndrome in adolescents: a unique subgroup? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162:521–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Buggs C, Rosenfield RL. Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 2005;34:677–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pfeifer SM, Kives S. Polycystic ovary syndrome in the adolescent. Obstet Gynecol Clin. 2009;36:129–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Davenprot ML. Approach to the patient with Turner syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:1487–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vlement-Jones M, Schiller S, Roa E, Blaschke RJ, Zuniga A, Zeller R, Robson SC, Binder G, Glass I, Strachan T, Lindsay S, Rappold GA. The short stature homeobox gene SHOX is involved in skeletal abnormalities in Turner syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2000;9:695–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gotzsche C, Krag-Olsen B. Prevalence of cardiovascular malformations and association with karyotypes in Turner’s syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 1994;71:433–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ho VB, Bakalov VK, Cooley M, Hood MN, Burklow TR, Bondy CA. Major vascular anomalies in Turner syndrome: prevalence and magnetic resonance angiographic features. Circulation. 2004;110:1694–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Increased maternal cardiovascular mortality associated with pregnancy in women with Turner syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2008;90(suppl 3):5185–6.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bondy CA. The Turner syndrome consensus study group care of girls and women with Turner syndrome: a guideline of the Turner syndrome study group. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:10–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nelson LM, Covington SN, Rebar RW. An update: spontaneous premature ovarian failure is not an early menopause. Fertil Steril. 2005;83:1327–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Murray A, Webb J, Grimley S, Conway G, Jacobs P. Studies of FRAXA and FRAXE in women with premature ovarian failure. J Med Genet. 1998;35:637–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Conway GS, Kaltsas G, Patel A, Davies MC, Jacobs HS. Characterization of idiopathic premature ovarian failure. Fertil Steril. 1996;65:337–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rebar RW. Premature ovarian “failure” in the adolescent. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1135:138–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brauner R, Adan L, Souberbielle JC. Hypothalamic- pituitary function and growth in children with intracranial lesions. Childs Nerv Syst. 1999;15:662–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jagannathan J, Dumont AS, Jane JA. Diagnosis and management of pediatric sellar lesions. In: Laws ER, Sheehan JP, editors. Pituitary surgery- a modern approach. Front Harm Res. Basel, Karger. 2006;34:83–104.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hayward R. The present and future management of childhood craniopharyngiomas. Childs Nerv Syst. 1999;15:764–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Keil MF, Stratakis CA. Pituitary tumors in childhood: an update in their diagnosis, treatment and molecular genetics. Expert Rev Neurother. 2008;8:563–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fideleff HL, Boquete HR, Suarez MG, Azaretzky M. Prolactinoma in children and adolescents. Harm Res. 2009;72:197–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Carel J, Leger J. Precocious puberty. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2366–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sedlmeyer IL, Palmert MR. Delayed puberty: analysis of a large case series from an academic center. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:1613–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Viswanathan V, Eugster EA. Etiology and treatment of hypogonadism in adolescents. Endocrionol Metab Clin N Am. 2009;38:719–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hoffman B, Bradshaw KO. Delayed puberty and amenorrhea. Semin Reprod Med. 2003;21:353362.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Winters SJ. Expanding the differential diagnosis of male hypogonadism. N Engl J Med. 1992;326:193–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Neumark-Sztainer D, Hannan PJ. Weight-related behaviors among adolescent girls and boys from a national survey. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154:569–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Currin L, Schmidt U, Treasure J, Jick H. Time trends in eating disorder incidence. Br J Psychiatry. 2005;186:123–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    WHO. International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD-10). Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hoek HW, van Hoeken D. Review of the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord. 2003;34:383–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Treasure J, Claudina AM, Zucker N. Eating disorders. Lancet. 2010;375:583–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Miller CA, Golden NH. Introduction of eating disorders: clinical presentation, epidemiology, and prognosis. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010;25:110–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Edwards JE, Lindeman AK, Nujesjtm AE. Energy balance in highly trained female endurance athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;25:1398–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brunet M. Female athlete triad. Clin Sports Med. 2005;24:623–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Golden HN, Jacobson MS, Schebendach J. Resumption of menses in anorexia nervosa. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1997;151:16–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyNorthShore University HealthSystemEvanstonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Section of Reproductive Endocrinology and InfertilityPritzker School of Medicine, University of ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations