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Screening for Cervical Cancer and Management of Its Precursor Lesions

  • Janice L. Johnson
Chapter

Abstract

Cervical cytology screening of women has quite successfully led to secondary prevention of cervical cancer, primarily due to identification and treatment of cervical cancer precursors (IARC. Handbooks of cancer prevention, Cervix cancer screening, vol. 10. IARC Press, Lyon, 2005). Recently, much interest has been generated to improve the efficiency of cervical cancer screening initiatives. One can presume with rising healthcare costs, liquid-based cytology availability, and a growing population, current costs are high. Another reason to change screening programs was the realization that over-screening was potentially causing psychological and physical harm.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) studies have demonstrated that virtually all cases of cervical cancer and its’ precursor lesions are associated with potentially carcinogenic genotypes of HPV. We also now know that the vast majority of sexually active people have been exposed to HPV. Studies have shown that in most cases of healthy women, the HPV infection is transient, and benign and clears within 8–24 months. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology have developed updated recommendations for screening for cervical cancer.

Keywords

HR HPV ASCCP ACOG LEEP Pap Liquid-based cytology LAST Project Colposcopy HPV Cervical cancer screens 

Abbreviations

ACOG

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

ASCCP

American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology

ASCUS

Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance

CIN

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

HR HPV

High-risk human papilloma virus

HSIL

High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

LAST

Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology

LEEP

Loop electrosurgical excision procedure

LSIL

Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

PPV

Positive predictive value

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of Illinois at Chicago, College of Medicine, Presence St. Francis HospitalSkokieUSA

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