Plasma Cell Neoplasms

  • Carla S. WilsonEmail author
Part of the Atlas of Anatomic Pathology book series (AAP)


Plasma cell neoplasms are interrelated by the finding of an expanded monoclonal plasma cell population. The degree of bone marrow involvement, the type and quantity of secreted monoclonal immunoglobulin (M protein), and associated laboratory, radiographic, and clinical findings help to classify these disorders into several entities:
  • Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)

  • Solitary plasmacytoma

  • Plasma cell myeloma (PCM)

  • Monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition diseases The basic genetic events that lead to plasma cell oncogenesis are similar in the different plasma cell neoplasms. Underlying genetic variations likely explain the heterogeneous clinical behavior in patients with these different disorders.


Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance Plasma cell myeloma Multiple myeloma Amyloid Plasmacytoma Plasma cell leukemia Plasmablastic 

Suggested Reading

  1. 1.
    Ahn JS, Okal R, Vos JA, Smolkin M, Kanate AS, Rosado FG. Plasmablastic lymphoma versus plasmablastic myeloma: an ongoing diagnostic dilemma. J Clin Pathol 2017;70:775-80. Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bartl R, Frisch B, Fateh-Moghadam A, Kettner G, Jaeger K, Sommerfeld W. Histologic classification and staging of multiple myeloma. A retrospective and prospective study of 674 cases. Am J Clin Pathol. 1987;87:342–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bayer-Garner IB, Sanderson RD, Dhodapkar MV, Owens RB, Wilson CS. Syndecan-1 (CD138) immunoreactivity in bone marrow biopsies of multiple myeloma: shed syndecan-1 accumulates in fibrotic regions. Mod Pathol. 2001;14:1052–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chesi M, Bergsagel PL. Advances in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Int J Lab Hematol. 2015;37(Suppl 1):108–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Heerema-McKenney A, Waldron J, Hughes S, Zhan F, Sawyer J, Barlogie B, Shaughnessy JD Jr. Clinical, immunophenotypic, and genetic characterization of small lymphocyte-like plasma cell myeloma: a potential mimic of mature B-cell lymphoma. Am J Clin Pathol 2010;133:265–270.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jelinek T, Kryukov F, Rihova L, Hajek R. Plasma cell leukemia: from biology to treatment. Eur J Haematol. 2015;95:16–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Małyszko J, Kozłowska K, Małyszko JS. Amyloidosis: a cancer-derived paraproteinemia and kidney involvement. Adv Med Sci. 2017;62:31–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Muchtar E, Dispenzieri A, Lacy MQ, Buadi FK, Kapoor P, Hayman SR, et al. Overuse of organ biopsies in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL): the consequence of failure of early recognition. Ann Med. 2017;49:545-51.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Paiva B, Puig N, Cedena MT, de Jong BG, Ruiz Y, Rapado I, et al. Differentiation stage of myeloma plasma cells: biological and clinical significance. Leukemia. 2017;31:382–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rajkumar SV, Dimopoulos MA, Palumbo A, Blade J, Merlini G, Mateos MV, et al. International Myeloma Working Group updated criteria for the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15:e538–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rajkumar SV. Multiple myeloma: 2016 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management. Am J Hematol. 2016;91:719–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ravindran A, Bartley AC, Holton SJ, Gonsalves WI, Kapoor P, Siddiqui MA, et al. Prevalence, incidence and survival of smoldering multiple myeloma in the United States. Blood Cancer J. 2016;6:e486.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stella F, Pedrazzini E, Agazzoni M, Ballester O, Slavutsky I. Cytogenetic alterations in multiple myeloma: prognostic significance and the choice of frontline therapy. Cancer Investig. 2015;33:496–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of New Mexico Health Sciences Center and Tricore Reference LaboratoriesAlbuquerqueUSA

Personalised recommendations