Campylobacter and Arcobacter
- 1.5k Downloads
Historically, Campylobacter and Arcobacter species are considered animal pathogens; however, in the last 40 years, both were implicated in outbreaks causing gastroenteritis in humans. These two pathogens are fastidious curved rods and have stringent growth requirements. Campylobacter is microaerophilic, and several of the species are thermophilic and are unable to grow below 30 °C. Arcobacter is aerotolerant and can grow below 30 °C. Both Campylobacter and Arcobacter are routinely isolated from livestock, poultry, and water. The outbreak of Campylobacter is associated with meat, poultry, and milk. Of 26 species of Campylobacter, C. jejuni is responsible for 95% of the outbreaks and is considered the most dominant pathogen. Campylobacter pathogenesis depends on the expression of several virulence factors that control their motility, chemotaxis, quorum sensing, bile resistance, adhesion, invasion, toxin production, growth inside the host cells, and iron acquisition. Bacteria possibly induce their own internalization through signaling events and rearrangement of the host cytoskeletal structure and survive inside the epithelial cells by expressing superoxide dismutase and catalase to deactivate host oxidative stress defense. Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) arrests cell cycle division, disrupts the absorptive function of villous epithelial cells, and promotes diarrhea. The Campylobacter-induced diarrhea is mostly self-limiting; however, Campylobacter may cause fatal infection in immunocompromised patients. The patients suffering from C. jejuni infection may also develop Guillain–Barré syndrome characterized by generalized paralysis and muscle pain, and the reactive arthritis is characterized by arthritis in knee joints or lower back. The pathogenic mechanism of Arcobacter (A. butzleri) is not fully elucidated, but the mechanism is similar to Campylobacter infection as to the tissue tropism, adhesion, invasion, tissue damage, and inflammation. Arcobacter causes diarrhea in humans (in children) and abortion and stillbirth in cows, sheep, and pigs. Preventing consumption of raw foods of animal origin and heat treatment of a food and preventing post-heat contamination are important to control Campylobacter in foods. In most cases, the campylobacteriosis is a self-limiting disease; thus, antibiotic therapy is not required; however, antibiotic is needed for immunocompromised patients to control bacteremia and sepsis.
KeywordsCampylobacter jejuni Arcobacter Gastroenteritis Guillain–Barré syndrome Reactive arthritis Miller Fisher Syndrome
- 3.Cróinín, T.Ó. and Backert, S. (2012) Host epithelial cell invasion by Campylobacter jejuni: trigger or zipper mechanism? Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2.Google Scholar
- 12.Silva, J., Leite, D., Fernandes, M., Mena, C., Gibbs, P.A. and Teixeira, P. (2011) Campylobacter spp. as a foodborne pathogen: A review. Front Microbiol 2.Google Scholar
- 15.Tegtmeyer, N., Rohde, M. and Backert, S. (2012) Clinical presentations and pathogenicity mechanisms of bacterial foodborne infections. In Microbial Food Safety. pp.13–31: Springer.Google Scholar
- 18.Wassenaar, T.M. (1997) Toxin production by Campylobacter spp. Clin Microbiol Rev 10, 466–476.Google Scholar