Advertisement

Patch Clamp Technique and Applications

  • Chao-Yin Chen
Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Modern Biophysics book series (HBBT, volume 5)

Abstract

There are two main modes in patch clamp recordings: voltage clamp and current clamp. In the voltage clamp mode, the membrane voltage is controlled by the amplifier through the recording pipette and the corresponding current through the pipette is measured. In the current clamp mode, the amplifier controls the amount of current passing through the pipette and the corresponding change in voltage is measured. A third less used mode involves applying no clamp (often designated as I = 0 on the amplifier). This mode is similar to intracellular recordings with a sharp electrode. This chapter will focus on the basic setup and concepts of the patch clamp technique, including considerations of noise and voltage errors in the measurement.

Keywords

Patch Clamp Technique Membrane Voltage Membrane Patch Voltage Error Current Clamp Mode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

I would like to acknowledge funding support from the National Institute of Health (ES012957, ES025229, and HL091763). I gratefully acknowledge Dr. Lauren Liets for her invaluable inputs and Ms. Emma Karey for editing the manuscript.

Supplementary material

References

  1. 1.
    Neher, E., Sakmann, B.: Single-channel currents recorded from membrane of denervated frog muscle fibres. Nature 260, 799–802 (1976)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cahalan, M.N., Neher, E.: Patch clamp techniques: an overview. In: Rudy, B., Iverson, L.E. (eds.) Methods in Enzymology, pp. 3–14. Academic, San Diego (1992)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hamill, O.P., Marty, A., Neher, E., Sakmann, B., Sigworth, F.J.: Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches. Pflugers Arch. 391, 85–100 (1981)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Akaike, N., Harata, N.: Nystatin perforated patch recording and its applications to analyses of intracellular mechanisms. Jpn. J. Physiol. 44, 433–473 (1994)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pham, H., Bonham, A.C., Pinkerton, K.E., Chen, C.Y.: Central neuroplasticity and decreased heart rate variability after particulate matter exposure in mice. Environ. Health Perspect. 117, 1448–1453 (2009)CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sekizawa, S., Horowitz, J.M., Horwitz, B.A., Chen, C.Y.: Realignment of signal processing within a sensory brainstem nucleus as brain temperature declines in the Syrian hamster, a hibernating species. J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol. 198, 267–282 (2012)CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sekizawa, S., Joad, J.P., Pinkerton, K.E., Bonham, A.C.: Secondhand smoke exposure alters K+ channel function and intrinsic cell excitability in a subset of second-order airway neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius of young guinea pigs. Eur. J. Neurosci. 31, 673–684 (2010)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Banyasz, T., Jian, Z., Horvath, B., Khabbaz, S., Izu, L.T., Chen-Izu, Y.: Beta-adrenergic stimulation reverses the I Kr-I Ks dominant pattern during cardiac action potential. Pflugers Arch. 466, 2067–2076 (2014)CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nystoriak, M.A., Nieves-Cintron, M., Nygren, P.J., et al.: AKAP150 contributes to enhanced vascular tone by facilitating large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel remodeling in hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. Circ. Res. 114, 607–615 (2014)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen, C.Y., Bonham, A.C.: Glutamate suppresses GABA release via presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors at baroreceptor neurones in rats. J. Physiol. 562, 535–551 (2005)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen, C.Y., Bonham, A.C., Dean, C., Hopp, F.A., Hillard, C.J., Seagard, J.L.: Retrograde release of endocannabinoids inhibits presynaptic GABA release to second-order baroreceptive neurons in NTS. Auton. Neurosci. 158, 44–50 (2010)CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen, C.Y., Bechtold, A.G., Tabor, J., Bonham, A.C.: Exercise reduces GABA synaptic input onto nucleus tractus solitarii baroreceptor second-order neurons via NK1 receptor internalization in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Neurosci. 29, 2754–2761 (2009)CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sontheimer, H.: Astrocytes, as well as neurons, express a diversity of ion channels. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 70 (Suppl), S223–S238 (1992)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hestrin, S., Nicoll, R.A., Perkel, D.J., Sah, P.: Analysis of excitatory synaptic action in pyramidal cells using whole-cell recording from rat hippocampal slices. J. Physiol. 422, 203–225 (1990)CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of California, DavisDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations